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Electrostatic Precipitator

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION

• GENERAL
– VISIBILITY REDUCTION DUE TO SCATTERING OF LIGHT FROM SURFACES OF AIR BORNE PARTICLES – MATERIAL DAMAGE

– AGRICULTURAL DAMAGE DUE TO ASH DEPOSITION
• LOSS AND REDUCTION OF GREEN PLANT PIGMENT CALLED CHLOROPHYLL RESULTING IN YELLOWING AND EVEN DROPPING OF LEAVES.

– DAMAGE TO BUILDINGS, MONUMENTS OF MARBLE ETC.

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION • HUMAN HEALTH
– OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DECEASE – AFFECTS LUNGS - SILICOSIS FOR FOUNDRY WORKMEN – RESPIRATORY CONDITION DUE TO TOXIC AGENTS
• ACUTE CONJUNCTIONS DUE TO CHEMICAL DUSTS, FUMES AND GASES

– DISORDER DUE TO PHYSICAL AGENTS - ENVIRONMENTAL HEAT OR LOW TEMPERATURE – EYE IRRITATION, COUGH AND BREATHLESSNESS – FORMATION OF CARBOXYL HEMOGLOBIN WHICH PREVENTS O2 CARRIAGE BY BLOOD

GROWTH OF PROBLEMS OF AIR POLLUTION • Rapid economic growth • Rapid industrialization and urbanization • Increased industrial production • Population explosion • Growth in demand for power • Increase in requirement for thermal power plants • More number of old coal based power plants designed for high emission & low ash content coal • High ash content or deterioration in quality of coal reserve .

NO. mmWc % Sl. more space required and not suitable for power plant  Not for power plant  Were widely used in power plants but can not satisfy the present day pollution control requirement 2. Gravity Settling 25-30 chamber 30 to 40 Less efficiency. Type of Dust collectors Remarks 1. Inertial Collectors  Impact 30 – 40  Centrifugal 60-80 (cyclones) 30 – 40 75 to 80 .TYPES OF DUST COLLECTING EQUIPMENTS Pressure Collection drop effieicny.

. NO. mmWc % Remarks 3.99 5 125 to 150 99. Can meet any efficiency and used many power plants abroad.TYPES OF DUST COLLECTING EQUIPMENTS Sl. Scrubbers(wet) 50 to 60 80 to 90 4. Gaining momentum in Indian Power plants also. Type of Dust collectors Pressure Collection drop effieicny.99 Used mainly in process industries and can not satisfy the pollution control requirement Can meet any efficiency and mostly used in all power plants. Electrostatic precipitators Fabric Filter 15-25 99.

PURPOSE OF POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT • Recovery of material for economic reasons – Pulp and Paper Industries (Sodium Sulphate) • Removal of abrasive material in the dust to reduce wear and tear of the Fan components • Removal of objectionable matter in the dust – NO2 and SO2 .

Longer life • Less maintenance • Adaptability .ADVANTAGES OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS • Very high collection efficiency • Low pressure drop • capacity to collect sub-micron particles • Robust construction .

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR PRINCIPLE .

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR WORKING PRINCIPLE The precipitation process involves 4 main functions • • • • Corona generation Particle charging Particle collection Removal of particles .

CORONA GENERATION • Due to the ionisation of gas molecules. . -ve ions and free electrons are generated.ESP . + ve ions.

CORONA DISCHARGE IN SPIRAL ELECTRODE .

ESP .PARTICLE CHARGING • • The -ve charges of ions and free electrons travel towards +ve electrode and the +ve charges of ions travel towards -ve electrodes. When -ve ions travel towards +ve electrodes. the -ve charges get attached to the dust particles and thus the dust particles are electrically charged. .

PARTICLE COLLECTION .ESP .

REMOVAL OF PARTICLE .ESP .

ANDERSON EQUATION Collection Efficiency = 1 .e .w. .ESP SIZING THEORY DEUTSCH . w = SCA = Migration velocity Specific Collecting Area • Migration Velocity – The velocity which the dust particle travel towards the collecting electrode under the influence of electric field. SCA where. • Specific collecting area – Amount of collecting area required to be provided to collect dust in gas flow rate of 1 m3/s.

sec = . m/s = Flue gas flow in m3 ESP effective cross section m2 Effective length of ESP Collecting electrode height Effective length of ESP in m Flue gas velocity in m/s • Aspect ratio = • Treatment time.DEFINITIONS • Flue gas velocity.

DEFINITIONS .

EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS Gas velocity • velocity is decided by the gas flow and collection efficiency required • Higher the gas velocity.Re-entertainment • Very poor velocity alters the flow distribution and effects settling of dust particles • optimum velocity depends upon the application will improve the performance. higher the carryover of dust particles without collection . .

required collection efficiency and available space. . the trajectory dust travel along with gas flow without falling in to hoppers .EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS Aspect ratio • During the rapping. the falling of dust particle take a trajectory form • Lower the aspect ratio.Leads to re-entrainment loss. • Higher the ratio. performance will be good • optimum aspect ratio depends on allowable velocity.

EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS Treatment time • Time available for capturing the dust particle • more treatment time at reasonable velocity improves the collection efficiency • Probability of capturing the re-entrained partilces improves with time. .

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS IN INDIA Prior to 1984 • 1974 – water act • 1977 – water cess act • 1981 – air act The cost of compliance was more than that of non-compliance: • 1986 – Environmental Protection Act comprehensive act with ‘command & control’ • Future trend is to internalize the environmental improvement cost .

REVISED EMISSION STANDARD (GAZETTE NOTIFICATION BY MINISTRY OF E&F DATED 19 05 93) • SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (SPM) • STANDARD ALSO STATES THAT • FOR POWER PLANTS •CAPACITY LESS THAN 62.5 MW AND COMMISSIONED BEFORE 01 01 1982 • FOR CEMENT PLANTS (TOTAL EMISSIONS) • CAPACITY LESS THAN 200 TPD • CAPACITY MORE THAN 200 TPD : < 150 mg/Nm3 : 350 mg/Nm3 : 400 mg/Nm3 : 250 mg/Nm3 .

economic & institutional .ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS – TODAY’S WORLD World Bank’s ‘proposed guide lines’ • For new thermal power plants (TPP) for capacities ≥ 50 MW • Pollution control at project formulation level itself • Site specific emission guide line • Propose standard of 50 mg/Nm3 • Aided projects are to abide by this • Further implication on technical.

75 2.0 NOX 1.0 434.0 SPM 0.2 POLLUTANTS (MT) CO 16.049 0.089 0.30 259.6 22.9 19.0 605.34 1.162 17.5 736.0 511.125 0.Emission of various pollutants under the business-as-usual scenario Projection YEAR CO2 1996 2001 2006 2011 428.158 .19 2.82 SOX 0.1 338.

COMPARISON OF PARTICULATE EMISSION NORMS IN OTHER COUNTRIES Country USA Germany Europian community Australia Sweden India Mg/Nm3 36 50 50 250 56 150 ppm 28 39 39 194 43 .

DESIGN DATA REQUIRED FOR ESP • Application • Process data • Gas composition • Gas pressure • Gas moisture • Dust composition • Particle size distribution • Basic design data • Gas flow rate • Gas temperature • Inlet dust concentration • Environmental data • Outlet emission .

of ESPs per boiler Minimum number of fields required Minimum Specific collecting area Maximum gas velocity Minimum aspect ratio Maximum area connected to one TR set Collecting electrode spacing .FACTORSW CONSIDERED FOR ESP SELECTION • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gas flow Gas temperature Inlet dust concentration Required outlet emission Required collection efficiency Moisture in gas Sulphur content in coal Ash resisitivity Particle size distribution No.

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75 99.ESP DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS HIGH INLET DUST REQUIRES LARGER ESP EM ISSION VS ESP EFFICIENCY FOR DIFFERENT DUST BURDEN EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENT .% 100 20g/Nm3 40 g/Nm3 60 g/Nm3 80 g/Nm3 99.5 99.25 25 50 75 100 125 150 EM ISSION REQUIREM ENTm g/Nm 3 100 g/Nm3 .

% 99 100 .ESP DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ESP COLLECTION EFFICIENCY VS SIZE 9 COMPARATIVE ESP SIZE 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 90 BASE : ESP SIZE FOR 90% = 1 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 COLLECTION EFFICIENCY .

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR .

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR .