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Faculty name: Ms. Neetu Deptt. of mgmt studies
• UNIT-I Introduction – Concept of talent management, strategic importance of talent, talent imperatives, elements of talent management, workforce diversity and talent management, role of HR in talent management UNIT-II Talent Procurement and Deployment – Identifying talent needs, sourcing talent; developing talent, deployment of talent, establishing talent management system, talent multiplication UNIT-III Talent Retention – Cost and consequences of talent departure, diagnosing causes of talent departure, measuring and monitoring turnover and retention data, designing engagement strategies, drivers of engagements UNIT-IV Return of Talent – Measuring contribution of talent to business performance, talent metrics, measuring human capital investment, transformation and reorganization of HR, new imperatives, talent forces of tomorrow
What is Talent Management?
The purpose of TM is to ensure that the right supply of talented workforce is ready to realize the strategic goals of the organization both today and in the future Organization‘s efforts to attract, select, develop, and retain key talented employees in key strategic positions.
Talent management includes a series of integrated systems of recruiting, performance management, maximizing employee potential, managing their strengths and developing retaining people with desired skills and aptitude
• TM introduced by Mc Kinsey consultants, late 1990‘s • TM is identified as the critical success factor in corporate world • TM focuses on – differentiated performance: A, B, C players influencing company performance and success – identifying key positions in the organization !!! Surveys show that firms recognize the importance of talent management but they lack the competence required to manage it effectively
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PDM MBA 6 .What is Talent? According to McKinsey. drive. • intelligence. experience . • skills. attitude. • judgment. • his or her intrinsic gifts. knowledge. • his or her ability to learn and grow. talent is the sum of • a person‘s abilities. character.
Abbey 2003) PDM MBA 7 .Who are Talented People? • They regularly demonstrate exceptional ability and achievement over a range of activities • They have transferable high competence • They are high impact people who can deal with complexity (Robertson.
TALENT MANAGEMENT PDM MBA 8 .
Why Organizations Need Talent Development? • To compete effectively in a complex and dynamic environment to achieve sustainable growth • To develop leaders for tomorrow from within an organization • To maximize employee performance as a unique source of competitive advantage • To empower employees: Cut down on high turnover rates Reduce the cost of constantly hiring new people to train PDM MBA 9 .
performance and promotion criteria and development processes. values. 2011) The values. – – There are different approaches to talent management in organizations A successful TM model has to link TM creed (culture. expectations and elements of the desired culture and the business excellence should be embedded in HR systems as selection criteria. 3. PDM MBA 10 . competency definitions. 2. expectations) with TM strategy and TM system. (Lance and Dorothy Berger.Talent Management Model • • 1.
values and mutual expectations that guide the behavior of an institution and its people‖ • It describes in general terms what types of people are expected to work in the organization and what type of a culture is desired to achieve success PDM MBA 11 .The Talent Creed • ―A TM creed is the set of core principles.
develop. train. reward) PDM MBA 12 . the talent strategy of all high performing organizations should have these directives: 1) Identify key positions in the organization (not more than 20.The Talent Strategy Describes what type of people the organization will invest in and how it will be done Besides the specific elements of their creed. 30 %) 2) Assess your employees and identify the high performers (classify according to their current and future potential) 3) Retain key position backups 4) Make appropriate investments (select.
greatly exceed expectations (3-5%) Keepers – exceed expectations (20 %) Solid citizens.below expectations (2-3 %) (Berger and Berger.Assessing the Employees Superkeepers.meet expectations (75 %) Misfits. 2011) PDM MBA 13 .
compensate more than the pay market. 2011) PDM MBA 14 . compensate at the market level or just above Misfits. need very high recognition.Allocating Investments in People Superkeepers.receive about 68 % of all the resources. compensate at below market average (Berger and Berger.receive about 2 % of all the resources for some.receive about 5 % of all the resouces. promote rapidly Solid citizens. need high recognition. compensate much more than the pay market. need recognition. promote very rapidly Keepers –receive about 25 % of all the resources.
Talent Management System Implementation program of the talent strategy which has a set of processes and procedures (1) assessment tools (2) multi-rater assessment (3) diagnostic tools (4) monitoring processes If the management is not willing to use assessment in their organizations they can’t do talent management PDM MBA 15 .
Assessment Tools for TM The five assessment tools should be linked to ensure that each assessment is consistent with the four other evaluations • Competency Assessment • Performance Appraisal • Potential Forecast • Succession Planning • Career Planning PDM MBA 16 .
The key link in the vertical succession and career plan • Boss’s peer group.Multi-Rater Assessment • Employee. The primary assessor • Boss’s boss. Source of potential new assignments in the same or other function PDM MBA 17 . The owner of the career plan that is aligned with the succession plan • Boss.
or recruit externally. and who embody institutional competencies. it can be a potential source of turnover and morale problems if the replacements are blocked by a non-promotable incumbent and/or there is no realistic way most of the promotable replacements can advance.Diagnostic Tools SuperkeeperTM reservoir. While ostensibly a positive result of the talent management process. Positions with more than one replacement for an incumbent. The ―insurance policies‖ that ensure organization continuity. SuperkeepersTM are employees whose performance greatly exceeds expectations. PDM MBA 18 . Keeper Key position backups. develop alternative candidates. Voids. Every key position should have at least one backup at the ―Keeper‖ (exceed job expectations) level. Determine whether it will transfer someone from the surplus pool. Positions without a qualified backup. Surpluses. who inspire others to greatly exceed expectations.
receive remedial action. The time frame should be no longer than six months.Blockages. Those not meeting job expectations (measured achievement or competency proficiency). Non-promotable incumbents standing in the path of one or more high-potential or promotable employees. or be terminated. PDM MBA 19 . Problem employees. Give opportunity to improve.
Monitoring Processes Evaluate the results of talent management system on a regular basis for • quality. • timeliness and • credibility PDM MBA 20 .
What is competency? Competencies are the core elements of talent management practices They are the demonstrable and measurable knowledge. teamwork. Examples – Adaptability. behaviors. decision making. personal characteristics that are associated with or predictive of excellent job performance. skills. customer orientation. PDM MBA 21 . leadership. innovation etc.
and utilize teams to optimize results.overcomes obstacles. 2011) PDM MBA 22 .Competencies and Definitions Action Orientation Targets and achieve results. and confidence with them Creativity/Innovation Generates novel ideas and develops or improves existing and new systems that challenge the status quo. creates a results-oriented environment... encourage others. Acts to build trust.. accepts responsibility. and help resolve conflicts and develop consensus in supporting higperformance teams (Berger and Berger. be part of.. inspire enthusiasm. develop. Interpersonal Skill Effectively and productively engages with others and establishes trust. takes risks. credibility. reward. and encourage innovation Teamwork Knows when and how to attract.
competencies focus on outcomes) Integrates HR strategy with business strategy –both focus on outcomes PDM MBA 23 . expectations) and the business strategies Through a competency model the organization sends a consistent message to the workforce about ―what it takes‖ to be successful in the job Helps employees understand what helps drive successful performance The Competency Model approach focuses on the ―How‖ of the job.Why Competencies? The challenge is to identify which competencies the organization expects to see in their people The starting point of the model is the creed (values. focuses on the people rather than jobs Competency models are outcome driven rather than activities (Job descriptions focus on activities. Competency model is behavioral rather than functional. principles.
Why Competencies? The competency model serves as the foundation upon which all workforce processes are built. PDM MBA 24 . Competencies promote alignment of talent management systems by creating a common language that enables these systems to talk with each other! That is. results of one TM system is used as the input data for the following TM system.
The Competency Model • The Competency Model identifies usually three groups of competencies: – Core competencies for the entire organization to shape the organizational capabilities and culture required to achieve the strategic goals(5 or 6) – Leadership competencies for the management teams of various levels for selection. career planning and development – Functional (technical)competencies (specific for each job family) PDM MBA 25 .
Developing a Competency Model Use commonly available ―ready to use‖ models with small adjustments for your organization Develop own competency model with help of consultants Behavioral Benchmarking compare superior performers with other best people in the organization and in other benchmark companies PDM MBA 26 .
mission and strategic plan of the organization Verify the competencies with a larger sample of the organization PDM MBA 27 .Developing Organization‘s Own Competency Model Overview of current tasks and responsibilities Come to agreement about what successful ―outcome driven‖ performance looks like Review of competency library and selection of ―must haves‖ for the position Rank top competencies as demonstrated by exemplary (superior) performers Identify of those competencies that align with the vision.
values • Strategic business goals • Identification of the tasks. mission. responsibilities and outcomes expected from each position • Identification of the superior (exemplary) performers • Satisfactory competency library PDM MBA 28 .Choosing Competencies Before choosing competencies in an organization following requirements must have been completed: • Establishment of vision.
developing your talent is not enough. the organizations need to take all the measures to motivate.Talent Management TALENT=COMPETENCE+COMMITMENT+CONTRIBUTI ON • Being competent is not only enough to be a talent • The competent person should be committed to the causes and goals of the organization • And should be able and willing to contribute to the success of the organization So. reward their talent pool to gain their commitment and contribution. Retention is also essential to gaurantee future alignment of the talent with the right key positions PDM MBA 29 .
Talent Management Model PDM MBA 30 .
Talent Management Model • Expectations for the future. Businesses should identify – Job roles – Spesific objectives – Competencies • Capabilities to meet the expectations • Work environment – Managerial support – Rewards and recognition – Removing barriers • Feedback systems needed to – Focus – To keep on track – Develop PDM MBA 31 .
Talent Management Cycle PDM MBA 32 .
.March April May on.Talent Management Process Organization Analysis -Job descriptions -Job spesifications Analysis Potential Candidates Performance Evaluation Buss.... Results Personal Development Activities Assessing the Emloyees A B C D Assessment Career Potancial Candidates Committees and Succession Lists Approval of the Lists Development Talent Development Programs PDM MBA January .. 33 .
mentoring. training) • Linking compensation with the program (reward and motivate) • Targeting culture as an important driver of TM programs • Secure senior executives‘ commitment to make the talent management model work • Evaluate the results of talent management system on a regular basis PDM MBA 34 .Structure of a Talent Management Program • Building Block 1: Identification and assessment of competencies • Building Block 2: Performance appraisals • Building Block 3: Succession and career planning • Development of talent (coaching.
career planning.Integrated Functions of TM • Performance appraisals. competency evaluations. and replacement planning (the core elements of talent management) should be linked to each other. assessments of potential. • Stand alone functions are destined to end with failure PDM MBA 35 .
HR and TM HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT o Broad Scope (entire employees) o Emphasize egalitarianism oFocus on administrative functions oTransactional oFocus on systems with silo approach TALENT MANAGEMENT oFocus on segmentation (key group of core employees and key positions) o Focus on potential people oFocus on the attraction. development and retention of talent oFocus on integratation of PDM MBA 36 HR systems .
PDM MBA www.studygalaxy.com 37 .The Emerging Talent Management Imperative.
committed working environment Succession planning PDM MBA 38 .Why is Talent Management important? • • • • • Recruitment and retention Getting the best of all employees Helps to deliver corporate objectives and plans Productive.
Recognize talent Change Organization Culture Attracting Talent WAYS TO MANAGE TALENT Managing Succession Selecting Talent Retaining Talent PDM MBA 39 .
– Knowledge sharing forums – Job referral programmes such Frito Lays‘ ‗Bring a Friend to Work‘ – Blogs PDM MBA 40 .Some beginnings… • Infosys has a rock band that plays at their amphitheatre and at outside concerts • Organisations have started initiatives like – Film clubs that hold screenings every month.
to ensure two way communication • Phillips Software: “Express Yourself” and “Watch this Space” boards for employees to write their views Elais. tele and video conferences.Cont… • Infosys: widespread use of intranet. USA: “Express Yourself Postcards” to CEO Forbes Marshall: Monthly Meetings. Quarterly Video Magazine PDM MBA 41 • • . Brown Bag Lunches etc. Greece: Lunch with CEO at a upmarket restaurant IKEA. employee surveys.
90% of senior positions filled thru internal promotions • Aditya Birla Management Center: Common form and scale for all. Balanced Scorecard (People-Service-Profit) based approach to employee goals. right placement or outplacement for non-performers PDM MBA 42 .Cont… • Performance Management • FedEx: “Professional Development Guide”.
Cont… • • • • • • • • • • • • Performance Management RMSI: transparent system allows all employees to calculate their own bonus Sapient: Career Management Program: 70% turnaround rate thru PIP Honeywell: Self assessment of competencies. use of 360 degree for senior managers PDM MBA 43 . Total Talent Management process for assessing growth potential. Annual Appraisal survey Adobe: Job rotation and alternative career path Godrej Consumer Products: Normalization by Leadership level. Higher education assistance to all employees.
The Corporate Challenge Ahead • Looking beyond the Executive for talent • How do we assess our Talent Management effectiveness • What tools will we use to embed good practice • Balancing the development of individuals and the needs of the organisation • Developing the skills for Talent Management PDM MBA 44 .
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Talent Management Strategy Outcomes Impact of Talent Management: • Integrating talent management strategies and processes brings better financial performance (73% of respondents) • Focusing on competency development. social networking and collaboration brings about knowledge sharing and high morale (61%) • Implementing succession planning and career development improves brand loyalty and quality of services (56%) • Measuring workforce performance outcomes increases retention of high performers (52%) PDM MBA 46 . coaching. on-the-job training and project-based learning leads to effective individual and team performance (66%) • Promoting mentoring.
Onboarding and Employee Performance • Financial Impact of Talent Management on Recruitment and Retention: • • • • • Reduces staffing costs Reduces staffing cycle times by 50-70% Reduces vacancy rates by up to 50% Reduces first-year turnover and overall turnover Improves productivity PDM MBA 47 .Talent Management Transforms Healthcare Recruiting.
What does good Talent Management need? • Leadership • Fairness • Strategy • Comprehensiveness PDM MBA 48 .
Few Challenges……. • The changing workplace • The ethical dimension • Creating a retentive organisation • An understanding of employee behaviour – What do they seek? – What makes them stick? What makes them leave? • Developing an employee value proposition PDM MBA 49 .
Aging Workforce + Less skilled workforce = TALENT CRISIS Emerging Markets .Demographic shifts in the workforce Developed Markets .Understanding Talent Management & The Global Scenario Global Talent Scenario .3 % 32.S.Wage inflation and attrition Can these be an alternative labor market ? Labor Force Make-Up Percentage Change By Age Group (projected 2002-2012) 30% 2002 2012 Labor Force Percentage Change By Age Group (projected 2002-2012) Labor Force Growth Rates Percentage Change (projected 2002-2012) 65 + 55 to 64 19% 44% 11% 35 to 44 8% 7% 12% Total White Black Hispanic Asian 12 % 8.5 % 19.6 % 50.8 % 20% 45 to 54 . Bureau of Labor Statistics 50 .9% 25 to 34 10% 0 16 to 24 Total 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ PDM MBA Source: U.
– Higher growth rates in emerging markets adding to demand.what is likely to happen – Automation. high-yield based jobs in developed Markets.Understanding Talent Management & The Global Scenario Global talent scenario. – Out sourcing of work from developed to emerging markets. – Birth of entrepreneurial opportunities but scalability a challenge Talent Management a GLOBAL challenge: Talent Crisis How to WIN in this environment? 1) INNOVATION 2) MOMENTUM PDM MBA 3) TECHNOLOGY 51 . – Companies migrating to developing countries. dissatisfaction and instability. reengineering. innovation. – Unmanaged immigration to developed countries – Technology and information penetration adding to transparency & instability – Diminished ambitions and enhanced expectations.
– Create “great places to work” .attract & retain the best talent. PDM MBA 52 .Understanding Talent Management & The Global Scenario Why Talent Management ? – Create Strategic Recruitment Plans to attract the best talent. – Direct the positive energy of people to the right areas. – Identify and develop LEADERS at all levels.
Elements of Talent Management Talent Planning Measure and Report Analyze Plan Recruiting Succession Planning Lead Talent Profiles and Evaluate Objectives Performance Management Advance Compensation Management Develop Learning & Development Career Planning PDM MBA 53 .
Innovation. What are the Financial consequences of talent decisions on our business? Is anyone in the Boardroom worried about the status of the “talent pool” ? PDM MBA 54 .Key Questions for Policy Makers • • Who are our top performers? How to hire and develop more people like them? • • • • • • • Are there Enough of them? Crisis Management? Replacement? Business Growth? Are we Retaining the best employees? Where did we recruit them from? Is there a clear Growth / Succession plan for them ? Is there a two way Communication with them? Do workers have the Skills needed to achieve the performance goals? Are the Learning Initiatives positively impacting performance? • • • • Where is the talent Demand outpacing Supply? How much of the Turnover impacts Customers. Productivity. Quality.
INNOVATION PDM MBA MOMENTUM TECHNOLOGY 55 . Who can benefit from it? It can be used by any recruitment consulting firm as well as by the recruitment division of any organization. Its modules are custom designed based on the clients’ needs.POWERHUNT What is POWERHUNT? An in-house Recruitment / Talent Management software driving over all Business Strategy with inbuilt business intelligence.
confirmation.Talent Management – Integration Management Business Strategy Module – Business Parameters Input Module Organization Structure / Divisional Structure Learning and Development Industrial and Functional details with sample and live JDs Business Intelligence (Auto/Manual) Job allocation / Search / Invoicing / Payroll / Attendance / Taxation / Incentive / Revenue Sharing / Legal / mailers (thank you. interview information etc) Admin Branch Head / Product Head Team Leader Business Development / Coordination Talent Search Franchise Management Finance / Admin Client Module Transparent Performance and Compensation Management Short-term (daily) /long term / Across levels and functions Business Analytics – Output module Short-term (daily) /long term Central Data / CV management. Linked to main website Crisis Management Business Development – Coordination PDM / Talent MBASearch Franchise Partners Module 56 INNOVATION MOMENTUM TECHNOLOGY .
Simplified Talent Growth Talent Management = Growth Management PDM MBA 57 .Building Sustainable Leadership & Futuristic Talent Management Strategy Talent Management .
Talent Management is about SUSTAINABLE INCLUSIVE GROWTH (Begin with the End = Well defined Business Model) INCLUSIVE VISION Organizational SYNC Individual “Developing Leaders” What do you require to implement Talent Management? People (Mindset) Processes (Practices) Technology PDM MBA 58 .
PDM MBA 59 .Key Questions for Policy Makers • • • Do we have enough leaders (quantity & quality) to execute ongoing and future business? Are current Leaders accountable for the cultural strategies supporting business goals? Is there any inbuilt mechanism to identify potential leaders across the organization early in their careers? Do we assess our high potential talent from the leadership perspective? Do we systematically accelerate the development of high-potential talent and improve the quality of executive leadership? Do we focus on growing better leaders at all levels from the first line upwards? • • • Invest in the best……Focus on the rest.
Traditional Talent Management Building Sustainable Leadership & Futuristic Talent Management Strategy Acquire Develop Deploy Retain Focus: Managing Best People Futuristic Talent Management Acquire Develop CONNECT Capability Deploy Retain Commitment Enhanced Performance PDM MBA Alignment 60 Focus: Managing Best Positions .
Workforce diversity PDM MBA 61 .
62 .Valuing Work Force Diversity • • • • • Primary and secondary dimensions of diversity Formation of prejudiced attitudes Discrimination in the workplace Organizational cultures that value diversity Individual and organizational enhancement of diversity • Affirmative action programs PDM MBA 15 .
63 . China PDM MBA 15 .Work Force Diversity – A Definition • Not all countries are multicultural • Some countries are homogeneous – Japan.
5 million and projected to increase PDM MBA 15 .64 . is a kaleidoscope of the world‘s cultures – It is the most multiracial and multicultural country – Foreign-born population is about 32.S.Work Force Diversity – A Definition • The U.
15 .65 . 2000 issue of Business Week by special permission.Figure 15.1 Foreign-Born Population Trend Source: Reprinted from April 24. PDM MBA © 2000 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. copyright Inc.
‘s biggest challenge as well as its greatest opportunity • Business practices must adjust accordingly • Traditionally.S.66 .Work Force Diversity – A Definition • Diversity represents the U. organizations attempted to assimilate everyone into one way of doing things PDM MBA 15 .S. U.
Work Force Diversity – A Definition • Focus today is on valuing diversity – Appreciating everyone‘s uniqueness – Respecting differences – Encouraging every worker to make his or her full contribution to the organization PDM MBA 15 .67 .
68 .Work Force Diversity – A Definition • Organizations that foster the full participation of all workers will enjoy the sharpest competitive edge in the expanding global marketplace PDM MBA 15 .
You’re going to have to sell to people who are different from you.69 . J.T. ―Ted‖ Childs. Vice President. IBM Global Workforce Diversity PDM MBA 15 . you’re going to have to work with people who are different from you.Total Person Insight No matter who you are. Jr. and manage people who are different from you. and buy from people who are different from you.
Dimensions of Diversity • Two dimensions – Primary – Secondary • The greater the number of dimensions that are different. the more difficult it is to establish trust and respect PDM MBA 15 .70 .
71 .Dimensions of Diversity • Primary dimensions are core characteristics of each individual that cannot be changed – – – – – Age Race Gender Physical and mental abilities Sexual orientation PDM MBA 15 .
Primary Dimensions of Diversity • Form the individual‘s self-image • The filters through which each individual views the world • Interdependent.72 . no one dimension stands alone • Each exerts an important influence on life PDM MBA 15 .
73 PDM MBA .Secondary Dimensions of Diversity • Elements that can be changed or modified – – – – – – – – Health habits Religious Education/training Appearance Relationship status Ethnic Communication style Income 15 .
Figure 15.74 .2 Primary and Secondary Dimensions of Diversity PDM MBA 15 .
75 .The Dimensions of Diversity • The interaction of primary and secondary dimensions shapes – Values – Priorities – Perceptions • They add depth to the individual PDM MBA 15 .
both dimensions of diversity can become roadblocks to further cooperation and understanding PDM MBA 15 .76 .The Dimensions of Diversity • Building effective human relationships is possible only when we value and accept these differences • Without acceptance.
77 .Prejudiced Attitudes • Prejudice is a premature judgment or an opinion that is formed without examination of the facts – Often based on primary or secondary dimensions PDM MBA 15 .
Prejudiced Attitudes • Prejudiced people tend to think in terms of stereotypes • Generalizations made about all members of a particular group – Perceptions – Beliefs – Expectations PDM MBA 15 .78 .
79 .Prejudiced Attitudes • When we bring stereotypes to the workplace. we are likely to misinterpret or devalue some primary and secondary differences. even after we have been exposed to them PDM MBA 15 .
Prejudiced Attitudes • Most common and powerful stereotypes focus on observable attributes – Age – Gender – Ethnicity PDM MBA 15 .80 .
Prejudiced Attitudes • Stereotypes exist because they provide easy and convenient ways to deal with people • Stereotypes often are based on one or several real experiences in dealing with others PDM MBA 15 .81 .
82 .Prejudiced Attitudes • Xenophobia is a fear of foreigners or other strange-seeming people – Stereotype that has evolved into an anxiety disorder • Prejudiced attitudes are more likely to change when we take time to learn about others PDM MBA 15 .
Jr. and values. this nation will be frozen in suspicion and hate.83 . Attorney and Civil Rights Leader PDM MBA 15 .Total Person Insight So long as black and white Americans see each other as stereotypes and not as people with the same dreams. ambitions. Vernon E. Jordon.
How Prejudiced Attitudes Are Formed and Maintained • Major factors that contribute to formation of prejudice: – Childhood experiences – Ethnocentrism – Economic factors PDM MBA 15 .84 .
85 . ethnic. religious.Childhood Experiences • The emotions of prejudice are formed in childhood • Children learn attitudes and beliefs from family. and other authority figures • They learn how to view and treat different racial. and other groups PDM MBA 15 . friends.
Childhood Experiences • Prejudices from childhood are alterable • Prejudice continues until new information replaces old perceptions PDM MBA 15 .86 .
87 .Ethnic Identity • Ethnic a group united by similar – – – – Customs Characteristics Race Other common factor • Ethnicity refers to condition of being culturally rather than physically distinctive PDM MBA 15 .
88 .Ethnocentrism • Ethnocentrism is the tendency to regard our own culture or nation as better or more correct than others • The standards or values of one culture are being used as a standard to measure the worth of other cultures PDM MBA 15 .
Ethnocentrism: The Iceberg Analogy
• Surface aspects
– Observable and relatively small – i.e., color, gender, mannerisms, job talents, speech
• Below the surface
– Larger and deeper, and not observable – i.e., beliefs, attitudes, worldview
• Clash often happens below the surface
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• Hard to eliminate • Rooted in basic survival needs • Reinforced by wide wealth and income gap between whites and nonwhites
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• People‘s prejudice against each other increases when the economy goes through a recession or depression and housing, jobs, and other necessities become scarce
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The Many Forms of Discrimination
• Discrimination is behavior based on prejudiced attitudes • Individuals or groups that are discriminated against are denied equal treatment and opportunities offered to people in the dominant group
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• • • • Employment Promotion Training Other job-related privileges
On the basis of
• • • • Race Lifestyle Gender Other characteristics
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Types of Discrimination • • • • Gender Age Race Religion • Disability • Sexual orientation • Other subtle forms PDM MBA 15 .94 .
95 .Gender • Focus of much attention • Traditional role‘s for women have been changing • Women in the work force • New roles for men PDM MBA 15 .
Age • Applies to both older worker and younger workers based on perceptions – Youth for lack of practical experience – Old for difficulty adapting to change • On the rise in the US PDM MBA 15 .96 .
97 .PDM MBA 15 .
98 .Race • Race denotes a category of people perceived as distinctive on the basis of biologically inherited traits – skin color – hair texture • People cannot change these traits • A difficult discrimination to overcome PDM MBA 15 .
Myth of Race • The use of racial categories by the U.99 .S. Census Bureau has been criticized • Critics say they are social inventions that reinforce racism • No scientific justification in human biology • Suggest elimination of traditional categories PDM MBA 15 .
100 .PDM MBA 15 .
Chinese.e. cultural and physical diversity • Increase in mixed-race identity PDM MBA 15 . Japanese. Asian—Filipino.101 .Myth of Race • Individual difference are greater than group differences • Wide variety with any group – i. Korean – Linguistic.
102 . and psychologically • Proponents of race categories believe it is the only way to ensure all groups will be treated equally • Racial pride – viewed as positive reinforcement PDM MBA 15 .Race as Social Identity • Although not scientifically defensible • Race is ―real‖ socially. politically.
103 . Mormons. Christians—Catholics.e.Religion • Religious discrimination has been an issue throughout history • Intolerance for other religions • Intolerance for different denominations within a religion – i. Southern Baptist PDM MBA 15 .
Christianity 2. Judaism • • History of Anti-Semitism Expected to surpass Judaism 3.104 . 1. Islam PDM MBA 15 .S.Religion in the U.
Disability • Mentally or physically challenged people find it difficult to enter the job market • Their right to do so are protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1991 PDM MBA 15 .105 .
Disability • Some employers still unwilling or unable to make reasonable accommodations • Possibly loosing – Hard-working employees – New customer base – Economic opportunities PDM MBA 15 .106 .
• Discrimination based on a person‘s sexual orientation is motivated by homophobia • Sexual orientation is not the big secret it once was • When we are comfortable about being ourselves, we are usually more productive and creative
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States Whose Hate-Crime Laws Include Sexual Orientation
Source: From USA Today, May 18, 2000. Copyright 2000, USA Today. Reprinted with permission.
MT OR ID NV CA AZ
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• Progressive companies are taking steps to provide a more open atmosphere
– – – – Employee associations Nondiscrimination policies Benefits for same-sex partners Recruitment efforts
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Subtle Forms of Discrimination
• Discrimination based on gender, age, race, or disability is prohibited by law • No legal protection for more subtle forms
– – – – – – Weight Accents Socioeconomic Education Politics Value differences
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What Can You Do to Deal with Subtle Discrimination?
• Decide if you want to stay with the organization • Determination whether the ―difference‖ is something you can • Address it directly if you cannot or will not change • Review assertiveness skills • Compensate by excelling
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112 .The Issue of Valuing Diversity • During the 1990s there was a strong shift away from treating everyone the same and a strong movement toward valuing diversity PDM MBA 15 .
113 .Valuing Diversity • Valuing diversity means that an organization intends to make full use of all employees – – – – Talents Ideas Experiences Perspectives PDM MBA 15 .
114 . organizations must recognize and hire the best talent regardless of – Skin color – Gender – Cultural background PDM MBA 15 .Valuing Diversity • To remain competitive.
The Economics of Valuing Diversity • Valuing diversity is an issue of many dimensions – – – – Legal Social Moral Economic PDM MBA 15 .115 .
116 .The Economics of Valuing Diversity • An organization‘s most valuable resource is its people • The cost of not helping employees learn to respect and value each other is enormous PDM MBA 15 .
117 PDM MBA .Costs of Not Valuing Diversity • Employee turnover – Loss of valuable employees – Recruitment and training of new employees • • • • • Discrimination complaints Tension. low morale Absenteeism and lost time Delayed production Increased conflict among employees 15 . stress.
and create an atmosphere that values its workforce. Valuing Diversity: New Tools For A New Reality PDM MBA 15 . and genders. races.118 . Lewis Brown Griggs and Lente-Louise Louw Authors. nurture and train that talent.Total Person Insight More and more. value the diverse perspectives that come with talent born of different cultures. organizations can remain competitive only if they can recognize and obtain the best talent.
119 .Valuing Diversity • Managing diversity as an asset can exert a positive influence on – Productivity – Cooperation • Companies that value diversity usually outperform companies that don‘t PDM MBA 15 .
120 .Managing Diversity • Process of creating an organizational culture where the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity are respected • As workforce becomes more diverse. this becomes more challenging PDM MBA 15 .
121 .What Individuals Can Do • We cannot totally eliminate prejudices that have been deeply held and developed over time • We can learn to change negative attitudes and behaviors PDM MBA 15 .
What Individuals Can Do • Learn to look critically and honestly at the particular myths and preconceived ideas you have been conditioned to believe about others – Contact with other cultures is important PDM MBA 15 .122 .
123 . activities. study PDM MBA 15 .What Individuals Can Do • Develop a sensitivity to differences – Do not allow prejudiced activity in your presence • Develop your own diversity awareness program – Diversity your life—friends.
124 . gender.What Organizations Can Do • A well-planned and well-executed diversity program can promote understanding and diffuse tension between employees who differ in age. and other characteristics. religious beliefs. race. PDM MBA 15 .
What Organizations Can Do • A comprehensive diversity program has three pillars: • Organizational commitment • Employment practices • Training and development PDM MBA 15 .125 .
Figure 15.5 PDM MBA 15 .126 .4 The Three Pillars of Diversity Figure 15.
127 .Organizational Commitment • Diversity programs seen as an event. or quickfix can do more harm than good • Organizational redesign in which diversity programs are seen as a process are more likely to be successful • Objectives need to be clear in order to access outcomes PDM MBA 15 .
Employment Practices • Actively recruit diversity • Plug into alternative networks • Foster a climate for retention PDM MBA 15 .128 .
Training and Development • Give managers and employees the tools they need to work more effectively with one another – Learn to value difference – Uncover unconscious behavioral patterns PDM MBA 15 .129 .
130 .Affirmative Action: Yesterday and Today • Affirmative action can be defined as a program that encourages the hiring and promotion of members of groups that have been discriminated against in the past • It is an effort to make up for past wrongs PDM MBA 15 .
5.• insert table 15.131 . page 379 • Organizations Subject to Affirmative Action Rules and Regulations PDM MBA 15 .
Protected Individuals • Sex/gender (women. including those who are pregnant) • Racial or ethnic origin (not limited to those of color) • Religion (special beliefs and practices) • Age (individuals over 40) PDM MBA 15 .132 .
not federal) PDM MBA 15 . not federal) • Military experience (Vietnam-era veterans) • Marital status (same-gender couples.Protected Individuals • Individuals with disabilities (physical or mental) • Sexual orientation (some state and city. some states.133 .
employ.134 .Affirmative Action Plans (AAP) • Formal documents that employees compile annually for submission to various enforcement agencies • Clarifies activities to seek out. and develop talents of individuals from protected classes PDM MBA 15 .
Validation of employment testing procedures PDM MBA 15 . Elimination of prejudicial questions on employment applications 3. Establishment of specific goals and timetables for minority hiring 4. Active recruitment of women and minorities 2.135 .Common Elements of AAPs 1.
136 .The Affirmative Action Debate • Some people believe it is time to rethink affirmative action • Critics argue that no preferential treatment should be given to any groups PDM MBA 15 .
137 .The Affirmative Action Debate • Common arguments – Preferences are discriminatory – Preferences do not make sense. given changing demographics • The debate will continue PDM MBA 15 .
Summary • Work force diversity is a major issue for organizations that want to remain competitive in a global economy PDM MBA 15 .138 .
139 .Summary • Primary dimensions of diversity include – – – – – Age Race Gender Physical and mental abilities Sexual orientation PDM MBA 15 .
140 PDM MBA .Summary • Secondary dimensions include – – – – – – – – Health habits Religious beliefs Ethnic customs Communication style Relationship status Income General appearance Education and training 15 .
Summary • Prejudice and discrimination are major barriers to effective human relations • Prejudice is an attitude formed partly on ignorance. fear. and cultural conditioning PDM MBA 15 .141 .
• Prejudiced people often see others as stereotypes rather than unique individuals • Discrimination is a behavior based on prejudicial attitudes
15 - 142
• Groups protected by law from discrimination include
– – – – – – – Gender Age Race Abilities Religion Sexual orientation Subtle forms
15 - 143
• The issue of valuing diversity is an economic one for most organizations • Companies cannot afford to ignore the current changes in the pool of human resources
15 - 144
• Individuals can enhance diversity by letting go of their stereotypes and learning to critically and honestly evaluate their prejudiced attitudes • Organizations must develop a culture that respects and enhances diversity
15 - 145
• Diversity training programs should become an internal process rather than one event • Companies need to seek out and employ people from diverse backgrounds
15 - 146
Summary • Affirmative action guidelines have helped bring fairness in hiring and promotion in many companies • Some people believe these practices are discriminatory because of preferential treatment they were designed to protect PDM MBA 15 .147 .
Be clear and objective when defining the value of talent.Role of hr in talent management •TRANSLATING CORPORATE GOALS INTO WORKFORCE NEEDS •MAKING THE PEOPLE-PROFIT LINK •LINKING TALENT TO REVENUE POTENTIAL Evaluate the tangible ROI associated with your people. Communicate messages that are relevant to leadership in terms they understand. PDM MBA 148 . Be flexible—business direction and objectives are always changing.
Career development. and Recruiting. Targeted selection and talent reviews. •TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT PDM MBA 149 . Succession planning/decision analytics. •MANAGING TALENT PROCESSES Performance management.. Development planning/support (including learning management). Workforce planning.Cont.
Uint-2 PDM MBA 150 .
•developing talent. •talent multiplication PDM MBA 151 .Talent Procurement and Deployment •Identifying talent needs. •deployment of talent. •sourcing talent. •establishing talent management system.
Identifying talent needs PDM MBA 152 .
What Types of Assessment? How can organizations assess existing staff to track high potentials and ensure new hires meet the future needs of the business? Assessment: • Online Psychometric Assessments • Leadership/Management Assessment Batteries • Assessment and Development Centers • 360 degree feedback surveys and business assessments • Competency model profiling. multi-rater assessment tools 153 PDM MBA . behavioral based interviews.
Assessment Benchmarking Define performance standards Identify appropriate assessments Identify incumbent sample Gather performance data for each employee Each employee completes assessment(s) Match employees performance data with their assessment data Statistically analyze data to determine which assessment(s) scale(s) predict on-the-job performance Develop recommendations and plans regarding future assessment and selection 154 PDM MBA .
and potential in a current or future role. The assessment process is characterized by: – Multiple participants rated by multiple assessors on several varied exercises – Many of these exercises are designed to assess competencies – Data integration: a structured evaluation of the participant in which assessors present objective evidence and reach a consensus decision The outcome of an assessment/development center are: – Written reports detailing a participant‘s competencies as they relate to job requirements – One-to-one sessions examining the reports 155 PDM MBA .Assessment/Development Centers? What is an assessment/development center? An assessment/development center is a process designed to identify an individual‘s strengths. weaknesses.
Why Assessment Centers? • • • • • • • • Combine multiple assessment and business simulation methodologies to achieve the best possible predictor of future performance Offers comprehensive secondary evaluation of preferred candidate strengths and weaknesses Are the most powerful tool to predict the profile you want to hire – save money over time Measure performance and potential therefore strengthening the leadership pipeline – allowing organizations to develop training strategies to further develop and grow talent Hiring managers can be involved and refresh their own assessment/coaching skills Offer broad range of competencies. individually or in group Provide wealth of information available to feedback to all involved Offers great opportunity to seal psychological contract 156 PDM MBA .
Assessment Centers Drive Performance Competencies Questions Do they have the required technical skills? Technical Skills Trainable Discipline Understanding Knowledge & Experience Capability Demonstrated competencies Attributes Behaviours that infer potential Do they have the experience and understanding necessary? Can they demonstrate the behaviours necessary for high performance? Do they have development potential? Untrainable Drivers Motivational Fit Will aspects of the role motivate them? Career Fit 157 PDM MBA Does the role meet their current career objectives? .
…and Tools To Assess Each Area Technical Skills Discipline Understanding Knowledge & Experience Capability Demonstrated competencies Attributes Behaviours that infer potential Resume Screening Technical Tests Preferential Interviewing Behavioural Interviewing Trainable Psych Assessment Untrainable Motivational Fit Behavioural Interview Career Fit Preferential Interview 158 PDM MBA .
individually or in group • Wealth of information available to feedback to all involved • Offers great opportunity to seal psychological contract Disadvantage • Time investment required from candidate – though they get more in-depth feedback in return and can also make an informed decision • Relatively expensive in short term – though saves money in the long run 159 PDM MBA .Assessment Centers Advantage • Most powerful tool to predict profile you hire – saves money over time • Hiring managers can be involved and refresh their own assessment/coaching skills • Performance and potential • Broad range of competences.
) AC Objective: Reduce the turnover of personnel • What is the percentage of ‗young graduates‘ who left the company within the first 3 years? • What is the difference between the young graduates who were selected versus an interview and the young graduates who were selected versus an AC? 160 PDM MBA . simulation exercises. RAT.Case Study A Assessment Center’s ROI In The Selection Process Client Issue: Very high personnel turnover • Young graduates selection procedure • Only one interview • Or a full assessment center (interview. etc. BAQ.
161 PDM MBA .Case Study AAssessment Center’s ROI In The Selection Process 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 25% 43% AC Interview The turnover of personnel was reduced by 41%.
Hudson was selected as the company‘s partner because of our robust methodology.Case Study B – Talent Management Assesses Future Leaders Challenge • • The client. global reach. the United States and Asia. one of the world‘s largest energy companies. the quality of our assessors and the cost-effectiveness of our offerings. • • 162 PDM MBA . the company revamped the process used to select employees for the program. As a result. had a program grooming high-potential employees for career advancement opportunities and broader leadership responsibilities. In 2008. the company needed a service provider with talent assessment expertise to evaluate candidates in the United Kingdom. making it more systematic and rigorous.
In late 2008. while others had already attained senior-level positions. • • 163 PDM MBA . business case studies. The type of assessments administered varied accordingly. we developed assessment materials that were uniquely suited to the client‘s leadership development program and trained our assessors to apply their high standards during interactions with candidates. values and leadership framework. Based on that background. simulation exercises. Overall. we conducted assessments at three sites: London. Houston and Singapore. about 85 candidates went through a series of ability and personality tests. Some candidates were at a relatively early stage in their career with the client.Case Study B – Talent Management Assesses Future Leaders Solution • Hudson‘s Talent Management team conducted a series of meetings to learn about the company‘s culture. interviews and group discussions.
Even those who did not make it into the leadership program found the experience valuable. Our guidance for the client throughout the process provided the company with useful information about tailoring their development efforts to ensure their high-potential employees can continue to progress throughout their careers. • • 164 PDM MBA .Case Study B Talent Management Assesses Future Leaders Results • Hudson provided comprehensive reports about the candidates‘ aptitude for performing effectively in future leadership roles. The client was highly satisfied. weaknesses and opportunities for personal development. Candidates – many of whom had never been through an assessment program before – came away with a better understanding of their strengths.
Summary • Identifying talent is going to become more vital with the predicted skills shortage and therefore more science must be added to the selection process Although it may look like an additional cost. always start with the right competencies for each role and build from there Always remember. adding science to selection can save thousands in the future It is important to identify the right solution for your organization and the types of roles you hire Whatever you do. high potential is developed through a solid understanding of competency and behavior • • • • 165 PDM MBA .
using various innovative channels to bring them in. • A robust sourcing strategy is crucial.Sourcing • Instilling a new talent mindset and developing a powerful employee value proposition are important but they aren't enough. and having a complete organizational commitment to recruiting the best. • That means being clear about the kinds of people that are good for the organization. PDM MBA 166 .
2 PDM MBA 4-167 .Human Capital: Three Interdependent Activities Exhibit 4.
train for skill • Emphasis on – General knowledge and experience – Social skills – Values – Beliefs – Attitudes PDM MBA 4-168 .Attracting Human Capital • Hire for attitude.
Attracting Human Capital • Sound recruiting approaches – Firms must take recruiting seriously – Challenge becomes having the right job candidates. not the greatest number of them PDM MBA 4-169 .
Developing Human Capital • • • • • Train and develop at all levels Encouraging widespread involvement Transferring knowledge Monitor progress and track development Evaluate human capital PDM MBA 4-170 .
Best Practices to Recruit and Retain Young Talent • • • • • • Don’t fudge the sales pitch Let them have a life No time clocks. please Give them responsibility Feedback and more feedback Giving back matters PDM MBA 4-171 .
How to Get Hired • • • • • It helps to know someone Play up volunteer work on your resume Unleash your inner storyteller No lone rangers need apply Be open to learning new things PDM MBA 4-172 .
Developing Human Capital • • • • • Train and develop at all levels Encouraging widespread involvement Transferring knowledge Monitor progress and track development Evaluate human capital PDM MBA 4-173 .
by implementing andmaintaining programs to attract. PDM MBA 174 .Talent Management System • A system that create organizationalexcellence by addresses competencygaps. develop.acquire. particularly in mission-criticaloccupations. andretain quality talent. promote.
opticalcharacter recognition software and equal employmentopportunity reporting made applicant tracking possible andnecessary for most large corporations. web browsers anddatabase technology.Talent Management As a System • Talent management as a system concept had its beginning inthe late 1980s when client/server technology. PDM MBA 175 . e-recruiting companiesand corporate employment web site. It took off in themid-1990s with the advent of internet. It went mainstream in late 90‘s withthe explosion of online job boards.
Cont… • A study was conducted by LBA consulting group in1990‘s. and those had failed. The result of the studysuggested that six human resource condition had to bemet in employees selection and performanceevaluation processes. over atime period of 25 years. The study examined organization that hadsurvived and prospered. PDM MBA 176 .
. • • • • • A performance oriented culture Low turnover (particularly in premium employees groups) High level of employee satisfaction A cadre of qualified replacement Effective investment in employee compensation &development • Use of institutional competencies in employee selectionand performance evaluation processes PDM MBA 177 .Cont.
PDM MBA 178 . development. • The classification of and investment in each employee based on his/her actual and/or potential for adding valueto the organization.Outcomes • The identification. • The identification and development of highqualityreplacement for a small number of position designated askey to current and future organization success. and retentionof super keepers. selection.
in the right places.and competencies of employees The two success factorsusually work together. at theright times. knowledge. Addressing the critical success factors helpseliminate gaps and deficiencies in the skills. PDM MBA 179 .Key elements of TMS The Talent Management system is comprised of two criticalsuccess factors that work together to ensure agencieshave people with the right skills.
• Recruitment:The workforce plan drives the aggressiveand strategic recruitment of diverse and qualifiedcandidates for the agency's workforce.- Attracting • Retention:Leaders, managers, and supervisors create andsustain effective working relationships withemployees.
• Attracting talent
– Identifies the challenges involved in attracting a high-qualityworkforce – Establish competency gap reduction goals and developaction plans to address current and future competencygaps – Use appropriate hiring flexibilities and tools – Attract and hires applicants who possess needed mission-critical competencies
PDM MBA 181
• Managing Talent
– Utilize flexible compensation strategies to retain employees – Develop short- and long-term strategies and targeted investments in current employees to eliminate competency gaps – Train the current workforce in required competencies needed by the agency
• Conclusion based on this study were simple: to optimize an organization's ability to achieve sustained excellence, it must recognize the need for proactive talent management and have a systematic way of accomplishing the activity. On the basis of research organization focus on three outcomes:
Definition of talent multiplication
• "Talent is typically thought of as an attribute of individuals. It is admired in artists, musicians and athletes. In business, we praise the talents of the exceptional leader, the brilliant strategist, the outstanding salesperson, the savvy marketer, the financial wizard," the authors state. • "Most organizations‘ talent management strategies and practices focus on individuals. An exclusive focus on leaders, stars and high-potential employees misses the opportunity to identify and nurture collective talents that may yield a whole that is greater than the sum of the parts." An example:
. In fact. workgroups and entire workforces. and they won it by multiplying their collective talents. Statistical analyses of individual player performances and the team‘s performance with different combinations of players on the court revealed that Shaquille O‘Neal. knowledge sharing and collective learning. In 2006. "Consider an organization whose talent primarily consists of twelve individuals: a US professional basketball team. as well as teams.3 It was the Heat‘s ability to engineer the best combinations of players‘ talents that led them to victory. the Miami Heat won the National Basketball Association championship. was not the driving force behind the team‘s success.― "When organizations combine employees‘ skills and knowledge in ways that foster collaboration. they can multiply their talent and elevate the performance of all employees." PDM MBA 185 .Cont. one of the best basketball players ever. he was not even part of the best five-player combination (based on point differential when players are both in and out of the game).
Unit.3 PDM MBA 186 .
Cost & consequences of talent departure • Increase replacement cost • Decrease productivity • Loss: – – – – Valuable knowledge Experience & skills etc. Key relationships Funding sourcies PDM MBA 187 .
vision.• • • • • • • Lack of leadership Lack of support Lack of shared goals. Training or professional development Inadequate compensation Potential for career advancement/growth No employee retention investment PDM MBA 188 . mission.
diagnosing causes of talent departure • • • • • • • • Effective communication Staff opportunity Inspire and motivate staff Listen and campionideas Develop. nurture and grow staff Flexible work schedules Incentives & recognition Compensation & benefits PDM MBA 189 .
4. 5. 3. evaluation PDM MBA 190 .6 steps in deployment of talent 1. 2. designing the process ensuring strategic integration assessing the current situation identifying and assessing talented individuals implementation: planning and undertaking development 6.
1. Design the process • • • • define a business case for succession management ensure transparency and confidentiality build in staff feedback systems develop a communication strategy PDM MBA 191 .
2. Ensure strategic integration • identify roles/jobs critical to organisation's success • identify distinctive leadership capabilities • align with training and development and performance management systems PDM MBA 192 .
internal mobility and attrition over the next 3-5 years • Use relevant succession and talent management strategies to fill the gaps identified between current capability for key roles and future requirements PDM MBA 193 . Assess the current situation • conduct a risk assessment of potential departures from existing critical roles • determine the extent of any pending position shortage by projecting requirements.3.
4. Identify and assess potential • Outline the capabilities required for effectiveness in critical roles • map essential skills and competencies identified using consistent & objective criteria • also use criteria to identify high-performance and high-potential candidates with advancement potential PDM MBA 194 .
Accurate identification & assessment Use existing performance management data such as: • biographical data • current performance • observed behaviour • 360° feedback and formal appraisal outcomes • interviews to determine career preferences • behavioural interviews • feedback from a range of senior managers performance • external assessments such as assessment centres PDM MBA 195 .
managing a project. access to a mentor etc PDM MBA 196 . a formal training program. Implementation • outline the types of roles or experiences which may be offered as accelerated development opportunities • develop each individual‘s required capabilities through a program of learning experiences • development opportunities include: targeted job assignments.5.
evaluation could be in terms of whether organisational risk has been reduced or minimised. • for the individual. Evaluation • establish clear timeframes • for the organisation. evaluation includes selfassessment about the degree of capability development and demonstrated changes in performance and behaviour in the workplace. PDM MBA 197 .6.
J. is not likely to make up for bad selection. mentoring.Collins.” “Hire hard….Talent Acquisition “Organizations need to get the right people on the bus and in the right seats to succeed. PDM MBA 198 . training.” “Good coaching. Good to great. etc..Manage easy!” . (2001).
Talent Acquisition Individual Organization PDM MBA 199 .
• Effort without distress (Engagement) – Working harder and deriving satisfaction • Distress without effort (Disengagement) – Giving up and feeling bad about it • Effort with distress (Strain) – Working harder but with fatigue and anxiety PDM MBA 200 .Talent / Employee Engagement Employee Engagement is inversely proportional to stress.
Talent / Employee Engagement What drives it? Service Commitment Organisational Commitment Engagement Work & Career Commitment Job Satisfaction PDM MBA 201 .
Talent Retention Who are your competitors? Colleagues / partners within the organization looking for another job Every partner / employee asks few key questions – – – – Am I working for a winning organization? Can I get my day-to-day job done effectively? Am I treated well? Is my work enjoyable and fulfilling? PDM MBA 202 .
Compensation are Fair and Attractive Learning and Development Provision of Employment is Secure and Predictable PDM MBA 203 . Health and Safety ATTRACTION RETENTION Opportunities for meaningful work Benefits.Critical Elements of Attracting and Retaining TOP Talent Constructive Relationships at Work Workplace Flexibility Culture of Respect and Inclusion Wellness.
Talent retention Engaged and Motivated Workforce Productivity Increase Inclusive Growth Business Growth PDM MBA 204 .
PDM MBA 205 . Selection and Development. Maintain Company Image. Learning opportunities – Engagement Performance recognition and rewards.Employees join companies and Leave Managers. Initiate Recruitment. Selection and Development. Individual and independent projects. Leadership – the maxim . Individual contribution.Retention Strategies Maintain Company Image. Initiate Recruitment.
• Individual and independent projects. PDM MBA 206 . • Learning opportunities – Engagement • Performance recognition and rewards. • Individual contribution.Employees join companies and Leave Managers.Cont… • Leadership – the maxim .
and experience less absenteeism (Durgin. tend to experience lower retention risk. 2007. PDM MBA 207 .EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • Companies with highly engaged employees financially outperform those with low engagement levels.
visions and values. • Managers are a conduct for the organisation‘s strategic priorities. PDM MBA 208 . • Challenge themselves and their staff to stretch performance. Taking owners of continuous development of their teams through performance management. • Setting smart goals with their teams.THE LINE MANAGER AS AN EPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT DRIVER • Managers have direct one-on-one relationship with employees through use of open communication.
strategies •Priorities set clear/smart goals High Performance Committed • Engaged •Accountable •Empowered Equipped .EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • Become a high performance organisation Capable Well Led Equipped Well Managed Clear •Shared vision mission values.resources PDM MBA 209 • Need to engage the hearts. minds and capabilities talented people .
They also want family-friendly benefits and concern in personal emergencies.Money can’t buy loyalty • Care and concerns Employees want training to develop their long term. 53% of respondents regard their pay as fair. careers. Other drivers include rewarding excellent achievements and noticing lesser achievements. in timely manner and. While fair pair is not a key driver. Communication Employees want the right amount of information . to a lesser extent. to be communicated within a way that considers their feelings. Accomplishment/recognition The biggest way to give employees a sense of accomplishment is to provide useful feedback about the performance at work. Fairness at work Fair work policies and treatment of employees are the two main ways employees evaluate their jobs. to be allowed to make work decisions and not to be punished if a decision is the wrong one • • • • • From the Soft Stuff Works by Heidi Brauer and Marc Drizin PDM MBA 210 . Trust Employees want to be encouraged to try new ways of doing things. Care and concern are global drivers and appear in the top two slots in loyalty surveys around the globe.
Organisations whose culture values the employees are in a better position to achieve the desired business results through their employees. Creation of a conducive environment for success. Managers have a critical role to play in instilling the desired culture.Organisational Culture Key to Talent Management Organisations increasingly recognise the need to create a culture which makes employees feel valued. a culture that fully leverages the skills of their human capital. PDM MBA 211 . Culture is dynamic and e… over time. Define the desired culture for keeping talent.
• how people are led to feel about their work. and • how the organisation relates to the world‘‘. • how information is disseminated. PDM MBA 212 . • how it values them.WHAT IS ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE? ―Culture is most commonly seen as the expression of the organisation‘s values manifested by • how people relate to one another.
• Creativity & innovative Practices • Open communication • Respect for employees • Employee engagement practices PDM MBA 213 .ELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE An organisation‘s corporate culture is often comprised of the following elements: • • • • • • • • • Employee motivation and loyalty Internal communication practices Decision.making Processes Operating styles Organisatinal philosophy Organisational Structure Organisational values Management style Leadership style • ―sharedness‖ of beliefs or values • Acceptance & appreciation practices • Concern for employees & fair treatment.
mission. PDM MBA 214 . values and strategies of the organisation assigned Zeal to stretch performance Taking ownership for continuous development Collaboration and teamwork Globerasation trends setting – keeping up with global market trends empowered to make decisions.Conditions for talent retention • • • • • • • • The individual The environment obtaining Industry status Employees understand the vision.
Cont. There is recognition of performance Conducive organisational structure. • • • • • • The organisation : employer branding Have resources to perform.. Attractive employee value proposition Keeping up with technological advances PDM MBA 215 .
Individual life cycle PDM MBA 216 . ―feeling part of things or involved Leadership that is trusted and provides necessary support Work that is meaningful and worth striving for. Appropriate compensation (market-related and fair) Good work-life Cooperative relationships and teamwork Good ―fit‖ with role and organisation including values. Challenging. yet achievable.Conditions of Talent Retention • • • • • • • • • • • • Employer of choice brand Opportunity for development. to make a difference and succeed Feedback and recognition on performance and contribution Regular communication. goals.
Unit-4 PDM MBA 217 .
Operating plans and budgets Project management Needs Assessment Performance Measurement PDM MBA 218 .The Management Cycle Figure 11.1.
a measurement system will actively promote performance improvement by. • measuring what matters. PDM MBA 219 . • providing corrective feedback and positive reinforcement to enthusiastic people who enjoy being measured and take improvement on as a challenge.The perfect world In a perfect world.
• FOCUS ON EFFECTIVENESS – 1) We have a need to measure better. • FOCUS ON THE FUTURE PDM MBA 220 .ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD MEASUREMENT SYSTEM • An effective performance measurement system should have the following attributes. – 2) We have a need to measure less.
ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD MEASUREMENT SYSTEM • FOCUS ON OBJECTIVES. PDM MBA 221 . ―KEY RESULT AREAS‖ – KRAs are those functions or divisions of performance in which your organization must continually improve to be successful.
PDM MBA 222 .EXAMPLES OF ―KEY RESULT‖ AREAS • • • • • • • • • Customer Product/service Public/society/natural environment Marketing Human Resources Production Maintenance Operations Finance • Good measurement systems don‘t just measure things done according to the organizational chart. Good systems measure things done to satisfy stakeholders.
– Measures are developed to capture both the input and output elements of a business system. – ―Key‖ means that this measure has been pinpointed so carefully that management knows precisely what to do. PDM MBA 223 . – ―Performance‖ is the result or activity we are looking for that fits in to strategic goals. Let‘s make sure the concept of Key Performance Indicator is understood. – An ―indicator‖ is a gauge or a measure that reports information. • Some examples of measures follow.Key Performance Indicators ―KPI‘s‖ • This is the essence of measurement.
SPEED INDICATORS • • • • • response time records turn around time records cycle time records project completion dates meeting scheduled time records PDM MBA 224 .
PDM MBA 225 . • Customer returns or warranty claims.ACCURACY INDICATORS • judgment based climate or opinion surveys – – – – focus groups comment cards telephone surveys advisory panels • opinions of community leaders • meeting design specifications or passing an inspection point that ensures the product works.
VOLUME INDICTORS • Measures the amount (Number of) of outputs or results from a specific activity or program. number of units produced – – – – number of completed transactions % market share Back order statistics Number of failed sales due to being out of stock PDM MBA 226 .
– – – – operating costs per unit produced capital costs per unit produced cost per customer as to sales and marketing expenses cost per unit of after sales service and customer support.INVESTMENT INDICATORS • Measures the amount of resources expended on a specific program or activity or the unit cost (cost/number of units produced ($)). • Notice that the financial measures are ―per‖ something PDM MBA 227 .
‗Six Steps‘ of a Measurement System 1. Develop Output and Results Measures for each goal 3. Use an Effective Recognition System 6. Develop Input Measures for each goal 4. Separate Strategic Goals Into Input and Output Dimensions 2. Check with SAVI to see if the set of measures is complete 5. Build the Culture PDM MBA 228 .
organizations create strategic goals that identify ―Key Result‖ areas of the organization where change and improvement is possible and desirable. Separate Strategic Goals Into Input and Output Dimensions • Following from Vision. Mission and Values.Step 1. PDM MBA 229 . • Our first step in developing measures to reflect the goal is to dissect the goal into its input and output dimensions.
Broad measurement concept of inputs unit cost efficiency Input dimension How well are materials used. (excessive waste) How well is labour used.2.Figure 11. (excessive idle time) How well is overhead used (idle capacity) PDM MBA 230 .
Figure 11.3. Broad measurement concepts of Outputs Internal Results Output Dimension maintaining and improving quality lower consumer prices External Results financial returns improve market share meet current and future demand PDM MBA 231 .
– Investment returns – Customer Satisfaction – Social Impacts PDM MBA 232 . accomplishments can be categorized into three groups.Step 2. In most organizations. Develop Output Measures or Each Goal • Outputs are accomplishments.
Figure 11. 233 . The proportion of the market share relative to the total market should increase at a rate that is faster than the rate of change in total market size. Investment Returns Market share The proportion of the market share against the competition should increase.4. Measures of outputs or Results. to be accomplished by a specific date. OUTPUT MEASURES PERFORMANCE GOAL (changes of specific amounts over specific time frames) CATEGORY MEASUREMENT CONCEPT PERFORMANCE MEASURE Financial returns % return on investment % return on assets employed Profit margin on sales % market share relative to the competition % market share relative to total market size PDM MBA All should increase by a specific % change.
Consumer prices Retail price by product The retail price matched to value should decline. 234 Child development Improvement in reading skills Impact on landfills when the toy is finished PDM MBA Social Benefits Environment al impact . Customer Satisfaction Deliver on time and in sufficient quantity Backorder and delivery statistics Backorders should decline and delivery cycle times should improve. Children using these toys should show a measured improvement in reading skills The proportion of toys presented for re-cycling should go up.Measures of outputs or Results Product or service quality Rejection rates in the production process Sales returns Both should decline by a specific amount in a specific timeframe.
Develop Input Measures For Each Goal • We normally develop input measures after we have developed output measures because it is a good idea to know where you are going before you decide how to get there.Step 3. – Financial operating resources – Financial capital resources – Other organizational resources PDM MBA 235 .
Measures of Inputs or Efficiencies CATEGORY MEASUREMENT CONCEPT INPUT MEASURES for “UNIT COST EFFICIENCY” PERFORMANCE MEASURE PERFORMANCE GOAL Materials and labour Direct materials and direct labour per unit. expressed in both dollar and quantity terms Material and labour cost and or consumption per unit should decline over a specified time period Overhead consumed per unit produced should decline Financial Operating Resources Overhead Overhead charged per unit % utilization of capacity %capacity utilized should increase to or remain at optimal levels Dollars per unit of capital invested should decline over time as capital resources are used more efficiently Financial Capital Resources Capital investment in operating assets Dollars of capital investment per unit produced Other Organizational Resources Non-financial resources consumed by the performance area Management estimates of the resources of talent and energy and other nonfinancial resources that have been dedicated to this performance area The amount consumed will increase as the project is developed and decrease after it is implemented PDM MBA 236 .5.Figure 11.
Step 4. PDM MBA 237 . Check with SAVI to see if the set of measures is complete • Before we can be sure that we have a complete set of measures. we need to apply the SAVI framework to categorize the measures as to Speed. Volume and Investment. Accuracy.
6. Linking Output Measures to SAVI OUTPUT MEASURES MEASUREMENT CONCEPT CATEGORY PERFORMANCE MEASURE SAVI financial returns Investment Returns market share % return on investment % return on assets employed Profit margin on sales Accuracy % market share relative to the competition % market share relative to total market size Volume Product or service quality Customer Satisfaction Rejection rates in the production process Sales returns Accuracy & Volume Speed & Volume Investment Accuracy Deliver on time and in sufficient quantity Backorder and delivery statistics Consumer prices Retail price per product Child development Social Benefits Environmental impact Improvement in reading skills Impact on landfills when the toy is finished Volume PDM MBA 238 .Figure 11.
Investment % utilization of capacity Volume Financial Capital Resources Capital investment in operating assets Dollars of capital investment per unit produced Investment Other organizational resources Non-financial resources consumed Management estimates of the resources of talent and energy that have been dedicated to this performance area. Investment Overhead charged per unit. Investment PDM MBA 239 . Linking Input Measures to SAVI INPUT MEASURES for “UNIT COST EFFICIENCY” CATEGORY MEASUREMENT CONCEPT PERFORMANCE MEASURE SAVI Materials and labour Financial Operating resources Overhead Direct materials and direct labour per unit. in both dollar and quantity terms.Figure 11.7.
PDM MBA 240 .Testing the measures • Once we are satisfied that the set is complete we need to subject each and every measure to a test.
– when results are less than expected we should quickly isolate the cause and correct the process PDM MBA 241 . Use an Effective Recognition System • Use Measurement to Initiate Change – An effective measurement system will use the measured results as a management tool. – When results are as expected we should offer congratulations and reinforcement to keep it going.Step 5. – Every result should have an automatic intervention strategy.
dedication. Build the culture • Good systems need good people. • Improvement does not take place on paper. • Improvement happens when people employ enthusiasm. commitment. PDM MBA 242 . leadership and morale in their daily routine.Step 6. There is no sense in examining a process unless at the same time you examine the people who govern the process. • A good system on paper is a healthy beginning but if you want results you need to follow up a paper system with a people system.
Closing remarks • In the beginning of this chapter you were challenged to find measures and see the resulting behavior. – So how about the 30 minute pizza delivery guarantee. which does he deliver first? And what happens if Pizza delivery people are offered a cash bonus for every delivery made within 30 minutes. That promotes speeding and if a delivery person has an order at 28 minutes and another at 10. and what does this do to pizza quality? PDM MBA 243 .
To be cont.. we react differently to control systems. We bring our own personal values to the job. A performance measurement system is a uniform set of measures that is trying to motivate a most un-uniform set of people. PDM MBA 244 . we are motivated by different things. • People are curious beings.
Talent Metrics: • Talent Metrics: Tangible Data (Easy to measure. attrition. This is appropriate to recommend when you are selling to HR PDM MBA 245 . • Talent metrics (also known as workforce analytics) measures tangible data such as headcount. and compensation. Low Value).
Measurement of Human Capital and Official Statistics PDM MBA 246 .
Measurement of human capital 1. also with Reference to Elderly Population (ISTAT) PDM MBA 247 . Measuring the Education Output of Government Using a Human Capital Approach: What might Estimates Show? (Fraumeni and NBER) 3. Measuring Australias Human Capital Development: The Role of Post-school Education and the Impact of Population Ageing (ABS) 2. The Measurement of Human Capital Development.
Why measure human capital? • Key concept in analysing central issues. such as – Productivity and growth – Impacts of an ageing population – Sustainable development – The returns to education OK – but do we need the capital approach? – Estimates of human capital may be compared to other assets – Enables analyses of policy measures in important areas Even so – what should be the role for NSOs? PDM MBA 248 • • .
Human capital is an intangible asset! • Human capital definitions – Wide: Productive capacity of individuals – More narrow: Productive capacity related to knowledge and skills • Improvements in labour quality may take many forms – Healthcare – Learning in families and neigbourhoods – Formal schooling – On-the-job training • Empirical studies typically focus on formal education – But stock figures include social capital as well? PDM MBA 249 .
Human capital theory in a nutshell • Education is regarded as an investment • Investment entails costs – direct costs and opportunity costs of forgone earnings • To be willing to undertake the investments. individuals with higher education must have higher productivity Individuals make optimal choices based on net present value of investment – in income or utility terms PDM MBA 250 . individuals must be compensated with higher wages ex post • For employers to be willing to pay higher wages.
Approaches to human capital estimation • Direct volume measures in NA – Volume indicators for types of education weighted together by unit costs • The National Wealth Approach – Implies a ‖wide‖ definition of human capital • The Jorgenson-Fraumeni approach to measuring output of the education sector (the Australian and the US papers) – More ‖narrow‖: Analysing the contribution to national wealth from education • The ‖indicator approach‖ (the Italian paper) – Human capital as a multidimensional phenomenon – A broad set of human capital-related indicators (OECD: ‖Education at a Glance‖) PDM MBA 251 .
Calculate resource rents from all natural resources (renewable and non-renewable) 2. physical capital.e. Human capital is calculated as the residual 3. Decompose Net National Income (NNI) into the returns from the inputs i. Capitalize the income stream from the human capital component PDM MBA 252 . natural resources etc.The National Wealth Approach: Calculating human capital residually Three steps: 1.
The NW Approach: Strengths and weaknesses • Making the ―intangible‖ comparable to other (measurable) assets • Based on (mostly) existing national account figures • Based on rather simple methods and calculations • The methods are not (necessarily) forward looking – In particular: demographic trends are not taken into account • The human capital estimate is a residual! • There is (usually) no attempt to isolate the contribution to human capital from education PDM MBA 253 .
i.The Jorgenson-Fraumeni Approach • Based on human capital theory • Output of the education sector in a year is the increment in human capital stock of the population.e. the increase in productive capacity over the lifetime • The distribution of individual productivity is measured by the corresponding wage differentials • Relies upon the assumption that market wages reflect the productivity gains attributable to education • The measure does not capture possible externalities from investments in education PDM MBA 254 .
– Educational attainment: if cohorts entering the labor market have chosen types of education with on average lower market value than cohorts leaving. like – Demographic: if cohorts entering the labor market are smaller than cohorts leaving. • Do relative wages reflect the output of the education sector? • Can we neglect the value of leisure time? (the Australian paper vs. human capital measured by the JF approach will ceteris paribus decline. human capital measured by the JF approach will ceteris paribus decline. as official statistics? PDM MBA 255 . Fraumeni) • How to deal with the value of basic education? • Can the complicated calculations be implemented on a regular basis – ie.The JF Approach: Strengths and some critical questions • May uncover underlying structural changes.
Developing databases on human capital for research and analyses 2. Developing methods for output measures in the Government sector (NA) 3.Human capital measuring: What should be the role and ambitions of NSOs? Three possible strategies: 1. Full integration of capital measures in the National Accounts PDM MBA 256 .
transformation and reorganization of HR • Redefining the Business and Focusing on the Customer • Teaming and Supporting Nonhierarchical Structures • Leadership and Shared Values • A Change in Language PDM MBA 257 .
NEW ROLES FOR HUMAN RESOURCES • Functional Responsibilities Shift to the Line • Human Resources As a Business Partner • A Focus on Career and Competency Development • Pay for Skills • A More Egalitarian Organization PDM MBA 258 .
Talent forces for tomorrow PDM MBA 259 .
no fear of technology Hard work.the common foundation of all successful recruiters PDM MBA 260 .how • • • • Passion to our recruitment industry Personal goals Embrace innovation.
demographics. recruiting innovation responds. The most competitive organisations recruiters will be leaders in this space. PDM MBA 261 . Wherever talent scarcity takes hold. naturalresources and other areas force businesses to continually look ahead and adapt .Truth • Force in play changes in behavior. technology.
technology.why • Changes in behavior. demographics. natural resources and other areas PDM MBA 262 .
control and transparency • Brand matters PDM MBA 263 .More changes • Arogance of supply • Unnecessary monetized frction points • Talent requires privacy.
PDM MBA 264 .