The Passive

Sample sentences
• The window was broken last night. • Our IT system is being renewed at the moment. • A loan can be arranged within six days. • Interest rates were raised by 1%. • I have been offered a new job. • A new job has been offered to me.

When who does the action is clear from the situation: • I was being asked some difficult questions at the interview. 3. When who does the action is not important.We use the passive: 1. . • The new design hasn’t been chosen. 2. When who does the action is unknown: • The window was broken last night.

-NO OBJECT • Somebody damaged the goods in transit.• Passive can be formed ONLY with transitive verbs – those that have an OBJECT • Someone is walking in the street. OBJECT .

. PASSIVE: is spoken in Mexico.ACTIVE ACTIVE: Subject PASSIVE Object Mexicans speak Spanish .

ACTIVE Subject Richard Branson PASSIVE Object founded Virgin Records . was founded by . .

Form: TO BE + past participle .

(passive) . (active) • • • • • Find the object of the active sentence. “The Wealth of Nations”… 3. by Adam Smith. written 5. was (because of WROTE) 4. “The Wealth of Nations” 2. The Wealth of Nations was written by Adam Smith. Put the verb TO BE in the tense of the main verb of the active sentence. Add past participle of the main verb of the active sentence Add BY + subject of the active sentence (if necessary) 1.Steps in making an active sentences passive: Adam Smith wrote “The Wealth of Nations”. Put the object at the beginning of the passive sentence.

ACTIVE Subject Shakespeare wrote PASSIVE Object “Romeo and Juliet” . was written by “Romeo and Juliet” was written by Shakespeare. .

are being shipped next week by The goods are being shipped next week by our supplier. .ACTIVE Subject Our supplier PASSIVE Object is shipping the goods next week.

won’t be finished The project won’t be finished by next month. by next month. .ACTIVE Subject They will not finish PASSIVE Object the project by next month.

within six days.ACTIVE Subject We can arrange PASSIVE Object a loan within six days. . can be arranged A loan can be arranged within six days.

offer. buy. for smbd. keep. promise. . indirect object direct object • give. save smth. lend. • book. take smth. prepare. sell. send. to smbd.Verbs with two objects They promised me a better salary. make.

offered me a new job I was offered I was offered a new job. was offered to me A new job was offered to me.ACTIVE Subject Indirect object PASSIVE Direct object They 1. 2. .

2. was given to us A large order was given to us.ACTIVE Subject Indirect object PASSIVE Direct object They 1. . gave us a large order We were given We were given a large order.

• The goods are being shipped next week by our supplier in China. . • The missing file has been found by one of the cleaners.THE PASSIVE: USES If we want to mention who performs the action we can use a phrase beginning with by: • The decision was taken by the committee.

Both of these sentences are correct. • PASSIVE: The Marketing Department is run by Peter Franks. we can use the active or we can use the passive and the word by: • ACTIVE: Peter Franks runs the Marketing Department.THE PASSIVE: USES Active or passive: If it is important to say who performs an action. .

and he runs the Marketing Department. It is run by Peter Franks. He works for Butterfield International. we would probably use the passive: • The Marketing Department is a large and very successful division that employs over 100 people. If we were talking about the Marketing Department.THE PASSIVE: USES If we were already talking about Peter Franks. we would probably use the active: • Peter Franks is an old colleague of mine. .

THE PASSIVE: USES Systems and processes The passive is often used to talk about systems and processes. For example. here is a description of the wine-making process: . because we are more concerned with the process itself than who carries it out.

Grapes are picked at optimum sugar/acidity levels. After picking. It can then be filtered and bottled and left to mature. yeast and sugar are added and the wine is left to ferment in tanks. When fermentation is finished the wine is poured into a clean tank to stabilise. The juice is then clarified by settling or by centrifuge. . de-stemmed and crushed in a variety of presses. the grapes are taken to the winery.Wine is made from the fermented juice of grapes.

I have included our current price list as an attachment. . • Our current price list has been included as an attachment. Our team is dealing with your order. • Thank you for your order for Pcplus software which was received this morning. Thank you for choosing soft. and we expect that we will deliver the package to you within 10 working days.Active Passive • Thank you for your order for Pcplus software which we received this morning. • Please note that these prices are guaranteed until 31 December. • Your order is being dealt with by our team and we expect that the package will be delivered to you within 10 working days.com. Please note we only guarantee these prices until 31 December.