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Module Instructor Engr. Khalid Rehman Department of Electrical Engineering CECOS University of I.T & Emerging Sciences Email:
Lecture # 02

What is MOBILE COMMUNICATION?? • What’s Mobility ??? • Does it really mean anything on a go ??? • What’s Communication ??? .

Mobile Radio Environment .

• Communication means interaction of two entities or devices .MOBILE COMMUNICATION • Mobility in real terms is the effectiveness of same equipment & services irrespective of an area (geographical location). 4 .

What is CELL & BTS • Cell is a geographical area in which a clear radio Signal from one BTS can be sensed. 5 . • Base Transceiver Station is tall tower with antennas at the top & necessary electronics to generate & manipulate the signals.


They travel more or less equal distances in all directions. Radio signals at the frequencies used for cellular Comm. travel only a few kilometers from the point at which they are transmitted. hence. • Cellular Communication network is composed of number of small cells. 7 . the area around it where a radio signal can be received is typically approximately circular.Diff b/w Cellular & Radio (non cellular) Communication • In RADIO Communication a single high power Transmitter used to cover a wide range of area. The reasons are 1. 2.

then he must have a number of transmitters positioned so that when one gets to the edge of the first cell there is a second cell overlapping slightly. providing radio signal.Diff b/w Cellular & Non Cellular Communication • If the network designer wants to cover a large area. • Hence the construction of the network is a series of approximately circular cells 8 .


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Must limit co-channel interference.Cell Plan • • • More than one Base station per city! Can re-use frequencies within the same system. Base stations connected to a Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). Base Station Subscriber Cell • • • Note downlink and uplink. MSC connected to Public Switched Telephone system (PSTN) Uplink Downlink MSC to PSTN .

. connects to MSC Mobile Switching Centre : Connects base stations to the PSTN • • • • • Uplink / Downlink : Direction to / from the base station Handoff / Handover : Process of transferring a call between base stations Macrocell / Microcell / Picocell : Large / medium / small cells Frequency re-use : Technique of using one frequency for several users separated by sufficient distance. Cluster Size : The largest number of cells which do not share any frequencies.Some Key Terminology • Cell : Geographical area served by one base station • • • • Mobile Subscriber / User : Person with a mobile phone Back-haul Link : Link from the Base Station to the MSC Base Station : Other end of radio link from user.

 A call started in one zone has to be re-initiated when moving to a new zone because the call will be dropped.  Each cell has a control channel.  Bandwidth allocation for voice channels (and data) is limited. 13 .  Adjacent cells use different frequencies.  Each cell allows one to use a number of radio channels.What are the motivations for this?  The aim is to use spectrum or bandwidth efficiently.

triangle. • Thus when considering geometric shapes.Why Cells are Theoretically made Hexagons ? • While it might seem natural to choose a circle but adjacent circles can’t be overlaid without 1. 14 . Or creating overlapping regions. 2. Leaving gaps. square & hexagon can cover an entire region.

.• 1. 2. Hexagons are preferred because It closely approximates a circular radiation pattern Among the three. Hence fewer number of cells can cover entire region. hexagon has the largest area.

• The real footprint is amorphous in nature.Why Cells Theoretically made Hexagons ?? • The actual radio coverage is known as the footprint. • It is determined from the field measurements or propagation prediction model. 16 .

Assignment 1 Find Area of a Hexagon? • What is the Area of hexagon in terms of R??? • Hint: s=R R s┴h 17 .

Thank You .