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# MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS

Module Instructor Engr. Khalid Rehman Department of Electrical Engineering CECOS University of I.T & Emerging Sciences Email: sahibzadaan@gmail.com
Lecture # 04

Co – Channel Interference

Co-Channel Interference • Co -channel interference depends on D/R. • D . co-channel interference decreases. • As D/R increases.distance between cells using the same frequency. • R . • How many co-channel interfering cells are there in first tier? 3 .radius of each cell.

g.Co-Channel Interference (Cont’d) • Always 6 in the first tier e. N = 3 4 .

Co-Channel Interference (Cont’d) 5 .

-a –a C/I={R} /{6D } If we assume that all distances DI are the same. –a C/I=1/{6(D/R) } 6 .Co-Channel Interference (Cont’d) • • • • • • • • • • The ratio of carrier to interference power is given by C / I = carrier power / interference power = C / { I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 + I5 + I6 } since there are 6 interfering cells in the first tier. It varies between 2 and 5 . –a The carrier power is proportional { R } where a = propagation path loss slope determined by the actual terrain environment. A value of 4 is usually assumed for (a) means a=4 Hence for a fully developed system.

Effect of Imperfect Site Location What is the C/I in this case ?? Hint: Use the same method as did in ideal case. 7 .

e. 14. C / I = (10 log10 54) or 17 dB i.N) = 4. D/R = (3.e. • If all the distances are equal to D .Solution • • • • C/I = R / {2 (D – R) + 2 (D) + 2 (D + R) } -4 -4 -4 = 1 /{ 2 (D/R – 1) + 2 (D/R) + 2 (D/R + 1) } ½ For N=7.R.5 dB -4 -4 -4 -4 8 . then -4 -4 • C/I = R / 6 (D – R) or 28 i.5826. lower than 18 dB.

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To further test your patience!!! 1) Obtain C/I for case where three neighbours are at (D+R) & other three are at (D-R) Now to really add to your agony 2) Obtain C/I for the case where only one neighbour in first tier is at (D+R). all other are at (D-R). 10 .

(ii) a=3? Assume that there are six co-channel cells in the first tier.Home Assignment If a carrier-to-interference ratio of 15 dB is required for satisfactory forward channel performance of a cellular system. what is the frequency reuse factor and cluster size that should be used for maximum capacity if the path loss exponent is (i) a=4. Use suitable approximations. . and all of them are at the same distance from the mobile.

and shift some MSs to other cells with a lower load) – GSM standard identifies about 40 reasons for a handoff! .Handoff/Handover Process • Handoff: Changing physical radio channels of network connections involved in a call. while maintaining the call • Basic reasons for a handoff – MS moves out of the range of a BTS (signal level becomes too low or error rate becomes too high) – Load balancing (traffic in one cell is too high.

• Handover is an automatic process. 13 .Handover / Handoff Mechanism • Handover. • The main reasons are low signal level or high error rate. or by traffic. • It is not noticed by the user because it happens very quickly—within 200 to 300 ms • The need for a handover may be caused by radio. operation and management (O&M). is a process to switch an ongoing call from one cell to the adjacent cell as a mobile user approaches the cell boundary. if the signal strength falls below a threshold level. also known as handoff.

Handover (Cont’d) A handover is performed in three stages. which decides if it will request a handover to another station. The mobile station (MS) continuously gathers information of the received signal level of the base station (BS) with which it is connected. 3. When it decides to do so. 1. The averaged data is then passed on to the decision algorithm. handover is executed by both the old BS and the MS. 14 . and of all other BTSs it can detect. resulting in a connection to the new BS. This information is then averaged to filter out fastfading effects. 2.

but also result in longer handover delays. • Longer averaging lengths give more reliable handover decisions. 15 . the measurements must be averaged.Handover (Cont’d) • To prevent handover resulting from temporary fluctuations in the received signal level. • So it’s a bit of a trade-off between handover rate & handover delay.

initiation of a possible re-routing procedure  .determination of a new point of attachment .Phases of Handoff MONITORING PHASE . release of old links .setting up of new links.initiation of a handover when necessary  HANDOVER HANDLING PHASE .measurement of the quality of the current and possible candidate radio links .

intra-MSC handoff – handoff between cells controlled by different BSCs – controlled by the MSC • Inter-MSC handoff – handoff between cells belonging to different MSCs – controlled by both MSCs . releases the old one • Inter-BSC. intra-BSC handoff – typical handover scenario – BSC performs the handover.Handoff Types • Intra-cell handoff – narrow-band interference => change carrier frequency – controlled by BSC • Inter-cell. assigns new radio channel in the new cell.

Handoff Types (cont’d) .

Handoff Strategies      Relative signal strength Relative signal strength with threshold Relative signal strength with hysteresis Relative signal strength with hysteresis and threshold Prediction techniques .

Intra-MSC Handoff (Mobile Assisted) .

Handover Scenario at Cell Boundary .

Handoff Based on Receive Level How to avoid ping-pong problem? .

Handoff – 1G (Analog) systems • Signal strength measurements made by the BSs and supervised by the MSC • BS constantly monitors the signal strengths of all the voice channels • Locator receiver measures signal strength of MSs in neighboring cells • MSC decides if a handover is necessary .

Handoff – 2G (Digital) TDMA • Handoff decisions are mobile assisted • Every MS measures the received power from surrounding BSs and sends reports to its own BS • Handoff is initiated when the power received from a neighbor BS begins to exceed the power from the current BS (by a certain level and/or for a certain period) .

Handoff – 2G (Digital) CDMA • CDMA uses code to differentiate users • Soft handoff: a user keeps records of several neighboring BSs • Soft handoff may decrease the handoff blocking probability and handoff delay .

Handoff Prioritization • The idea of reserving channels for handoff calls was introduced in the mid 1980s as a way of reducing the handoff call blocking probability • Motivation: users find calls blocked in mid-progress a far greater irritant than unsuccessful call attempts. . • The basic idea is to reserve a certain portion of the total channel pool in a cell for handoff users only.

Performance Metrics • Call blocking probability – probability of a new call being blocked • Call dropping probability – probability that a call is terminated due to a handoff • Call completion probability – probability that an admitted call is not dropped before it terminates • Handoff blocking probability – probability that a handoff cannot be successfully completed .

Performance Metrics (Cont’d)     Handoff probability – probability that a handoff occurs before call termination Rate of handoff – number of handoffs per unit time Interruption duration – duration of time during a handoff in which a mobile is not connected to either base station Handoff delay – distance the mobile moves from the point at which the handoff should occur to the point at which it does occur .

Thank You .