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CHM 1045: General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis

Unit 2: Elements and Compounds: Atoms, Molecules & Ions


Dr. Jorge L. Alonso Miami-Dade College Kendall Campus Miami, FL
Textbook References: Modules #2 & 5 Atoms,
Molecules, and Ions

The Early Development of the

Atomic Theory
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Ancient Atomic Theory


Leucippus of Miletus & Democritus of Abdera (Gk. 5th Cent BC) More philosophical than experimental in origin. Matter is made up of very small individual atomos objects that are indivisible. Everything is made up of these atoms, which move around in a void (a vacuum). The different physical properties -- color, taste, and so on -- of materials come about because atoms in Atoms, them are different shapes and/or arrangements Molecules, and and Ions orientations with respect to each other.

Medieval Alchemy (, al-khimia)


Jabir ibn Hayyan

Science as an early form of investigation, with occult philosophical and spiritual traditions.

Merlin the Magician

Principal aim of Alchemist:


the transmutation of common metals into gold or silver. Cinnabar (red powder) Hg

Zn, Cu, Fe Au or Ag
the creation of a "panacea," or the elixir of life, a remedy that supposedly Atoms, would cure all diseases and prolong Molecules, life indefinitely. and Ions

Chemistry in the Age of Enlightment


Law of Conservation of Mass:
(1743 - 1794)

(s)

(l)

(g)

27 g

25 g + 2 g
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

{HgOMovie}

Law of Constant Composition (or Definite Proportions)


Expt. #1 #2 #3 Expt. #1 Water 9.0 g 18.0 g 13.5 g Hydrogen Peroxide 17.0 g Hydrogen + 1.0 g 2.0 g 1.5 g Oxygen 8.0 g 16.0 g 12.0 g

In Water Ratio H :O 1:8


Compared masses of different elements within the same compound.

Hydrogen + Oxygen 1.0 g 16.0 g

#2
#3

34.0 g
25.5 g

2.0 g
1.5 g

32.0
24.0 g

(17541826)

In H-Peroxide Ratio H : O 1 :16

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Daltons Law of Multiple Proportion

John Dalton (17661844).

When two elements form two different compounds, the mass ratio of the elements in one compound is related to the mass ratio in the other compound by a small whole number.
C + O2 (high oxy.conc.) CO2

mass Oxygen 32.0 g 2.67 mass Carbon 12.0 g


C + O2 (low oxy.conc.) CO

2.67 g 2.00 1.33 g

mass Oxygen 16.0 g 1.33 mass Carbon 12.0 g

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Daltons Atomic Theory (1801)


All matter isis made up ofof small 1. All matter made up small indivisible particles called atoms. indivisible particles called atoms. The properties ofof the atoms ofof one 2. The properties the atoms one element differ from those of of all all other element differ form those elements. other elements. Atoms nor 3. Atomscan canneither neither be created created nor destroyed. destroyed. All atoms element are 4. All atomsof of the the same same element are identical in mass, size, identical in mass, size, andand physical properties. physical properties. Atoms combine inin small whole 5. Atoms combine small whole number ratios to to form compounds. number ratios form compounds.

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

The Electron

Excess of electrons
Rubber band rubs Movie} metals inside

{Electroscope

Electrically charged particles can be rubbed-out of many substances such as glass rods, hair, shoes, rubber tires and shoes. {Electroscope Movie*}

Lack of electrons

Rubber band

Electric motor

Van de Graaff Generator

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

The Electron

Batteries (chemicals)

Electron Rays

cathode ray tubes produce negatively charged particles (electrons) from chemicals in batteries. J. J. Thompson is credited with their discovery (1897). Movie 1 Movie 2 Movie 3

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

The Atom, circa 1900

Plum pudding model, put forward by J. J. Thompson. Positive sphere of matter with negative electrons imbedded in it.
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Discovery of the Nucleus


In 1909 Ernest Rutherford shot particles at a thin sheet of gold foil and observed the pattern of scatter of the particles.
4 2

He

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

The Nuclear Atom

Since some particles were deflected at large angles, J. J. Thompsons model could not be correct.
{*Rutherfords Experiment}
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

The Nuclear Atom

According to Rutherford

He postulated a very small, dense nucleus with the electrons around the outside of the atom.

Difference of 105 = 100,000

Most of the volume of the atom is empty space.

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Historical Development of Atomic Theory

{Bohr Planetary vs. Quantum Model}

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Seeing Atoms: Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Seeing Atoms: Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Subatomic Particles: Charge & Mass


Protons were discovered by Rutherford in 1919.
{ProtonDiscoveryMovie}

Neutrons were discovered by James Chadwick in 1932.

Protons and neutrons have essentially the same mass. Atoms, The mass of an electron is so small we ignore it.

Molecules, and Ions

Elements
Pure substances that cannot be broken down into more elemental particles by ordinary chemical means. IA
IIA VIIIA

A. Atomic number B. Mass number C. Isotopes D. Atomic mass or weigh


IIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII IB IIB

IIIA

IVA

VA

VIA

VIIA

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Elements & Atomic terminology


Atomic number (Z) = #p
#p = #e- in a neutral atom Identifies the element

Mass number (A) = (#p+) + (#no) A = Z + N of the same element (same at. #), having Isotopes Atoms different number of neutrons. Atomic mass or weigh (a.m.u. or grams)
The average mass of the isotopes of an element, considering their natural % abundance.
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with different masses (mass number) Isotopes have different numbers of neutrons.
Atomic mass or weigh?

*
(atomic number =1) 99.985% 0.015% 0% Natural Abundance

(atomic number =2)

0.000137% 99.999863% Natural Abundance

(atomic number =3) 7.59% 92.41% Natural Abundance

Isotopes of Carbon: (isotope notation)


Mass number Atomic number

Natural Abundance:

11 C 6

negligible

12 C 6
98.89%

13 C 6
1.11%

14 C 6
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

negligible

Isotopes of Hydrogen
1H 2H 3H

Natural Abundance 99.985% 0.015% negligible unstable, radioactive


Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Isotopes of Carbon
12C 13C 14C

Natural

Abundance

98.89%

1.11%

negligible

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Table of Isotopes (partial)

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Determination of Atomic Mass


Mass spectrometer: can separate isotopes of an element based on their charge and mass, & measure their % abundance.

South pole (-) of magnet attracts lighter isotope more easily than heavier isotope.
Ionizing chamber

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Mass Spectrometer
Mass Spectrum of Germanium (Ge)

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Atomic Mass (Weight): the average mass of isotopes of an element, considering their natural abundance
Isotope % Abund. f.Abund. X Mass # =
3He 4He

0.01 99.99

(0.0001 x

3) = 0.0003

(0.9999 x 4) = +3.9996

4.000
35Cl 37Cl

75.77 24.23

Atomic Mass (Weigh): AM = (f1 x M#1) + (f2 x M#2) +

24Mg 25Mg 26Mg

78.99 10.00 11.01


Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

200?

2007 (B)#2

More exact

Atomic Mass (Weigh): AM = (f1 x M#1) + (f2 x M#2) +


Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Properties of Metal, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Organization or the Periodic Table: Groups (Families)


The following four groups are known by their names:

Representative Elements

Transition Metals

Representative Elements

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Diatomic Molecules of Elements

Alonsos Rule of 7 + 1:

Start with element #7, Nitrogen, trace a 7 and count 7 elements.


Plus 1 more element, #1 Hydrogen

At2

These seven + one elements occur naturally as molecules containing two atoms (diatomic).
In compounds they may combine in other ratios. NaCl, BaCl2, AlCl3,CCl4.
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Compounds
Pure substances (cannot be separated by physical means). Compounds can be broken down (decomposed) into more elemental particles (elements) by ordinary chemical means.
Molecular Formulas: H2O CO2 H2O2 CO CH4

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Structural Formulas: (Space-filling )

Classification of Compounds
Covalent (Molecular) Compounds: Non-Metals + Non-Metals. Acids: Hydrogen + Nonmetals (polar covalent) Ionic Compounds Salts: Metal + Non-Metal Bases: Metals + Hydroxide Ion (OH-) Acid Salts: Metal + Acid (Hydrogen + Nonmetal) Organic Compounds: covalent compounds containing
carbon (C) atom chains, with mostly H & O atoms attached Atoms, to the Molecules, chain. and Ions

Covalent (Molecular) Compounds:


H2O(g)
Composed of a Non-Metal combined with another Non-Metal. Are mostly gases, liquids, and sometimes amorphous solids. Have low melting points Bonded atoms share electrons.

H2O(s)
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

H2O(l)

Nomenclature: Molecular Compound


Prefix*- (name of 1st Element) Prefix- (root of 2nd Element) - IDE * Prefix mono- not used for 1st
element
Molecular Formulas: H2O CO2 H2O2 CO CH4

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Structural Formulas: (Space-filling )

Ionic Compounds

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Ionic Compounds (Salts):


Composed of a Metal ion (cation, M+) combined with an NonMetal ion (anion, N-); atoms exchange transfer electrons. Are Crystalline Solids. Have high melting points Smallest component particle is called a formula unit, not a molecule.

Cations

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Anions

Ionic Nomenclature: Binary Salts


1+

(A) Ions with Fixed Charges (Oxidation Numbers) 2+ 3+

132-

Zn2+ Ag1+ Cd2+

Aluminum Nitride Al
3+

Aluminum Oxide Al
3+

Aluminum Bromide Al
3+

N AlN

3-

O Al2O3

2-

Br AlBr3

Name of 1st Element

Root of 2nd Element Atoms, Molecules, -IDE and Ions

Ionic Nomenclature: Binary Salts


(B) Ions with Variable Oxidation Numbers (Mostly Transition Metals)
Iron (II) Nitride Fe
2+

Iron (III) Nitride Fe


3+

N Fe3N2

3-

N FeN

3-

IUPAC Nomenclature:

Traditional Names:

Atoms, Name of 1st Element (Roman Numeral) (or ous, -ic) Molecules, and Ions Root of 2nd Element -IDE

Ionic Nomenclature: Binary Salts


(B) Ions with Variable Oxidation Numbers

Iron (Ferrum): Exceptions 2+ 3+ Fe (Iron II or Ferrous) Fe (Iron III or Ferric) Copper (Cuprum): Cu 1+ (Copper I or Cuprous) Cu 2+ (Copper II or Cupric) Atoms, Molecules, Mercury (Hydragyrum): and Ions 1+ 2+ Hg (Mercury I or Mercurous) Hg (Mercury II or Mercuric)

Ionic Nomenclature: Salts with Polyatomic Ions


Common Representative -ate Oxyanions
Common Polyatomic Ions

Na+ NO3 nitrate Na+ PO4 3phosphate Na+AsO4 3Arsenate Na+ClO3 chlorate

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Ionic Nomenclature: Salts with Polyatomic Ions


Name of 1st Element (Roman Numeral or ous, -ic) Name of Polyatomic ion (all end in -ATE) Common Representative -ate Oxyanions
IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA

BO3 3borate

CO3 2carbonate SiO3 2silicate

NO3 nitrate PO4 3phosphate AsO4 3arsenate

Oxygen

SO4 2sulfate SeO4 2sellenate TeO4 2tellurate

ClO3 chlorate BrO3 bromate IO3 iodate


Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Polyatomic Ion Mnemonics


Common Representative -ate Oxyanions
IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA

Pattern in # oxygens:
ClO4 -

BO3 3CO3 2borate carbonate SiO3 2silicate

NO3 nitrate PO4 3phosphate AsO4 3arsenate

Oxygen

Per-(oxyanion)-ate (oxyanion)-ate

SO4 2sulfate

ClO3 chlorate

ClO3 ClO2 -

(oxyanion)- ite

SeO4 2BrO3 Hypo-(oxyanion)-ite sellenate bromate


ClO -

TeO4 2tellurate

IO3 iodate

Every step down the pattern ion has one less oxygen.

Name of 1st Element (Roman Numeral or ous, Atoms, -ic) Name of Polyatomic ion (Per- Hypo ATE ITE)
Molecules, and Ions

Ionic Nomenclature: other Polyatomic Ions

OHhydroxide NH4+ ammonium CrO42chromate

CNcyanide

SCNthiocyanate

C2H3O2acetate

MnO4permanganate

Cr2O72dichromate

C2O42oxalate

O22peroxide

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Writing Ionic Formulas

Mg2+

OH-

MgOH2 Mg(OH)2 Mg2O2 Mg3(PO4)2 MgSO3 MgO

Mg 2+
Mg 2+

O2PO43-

Mg 2+

SO32-

Atoms, If these subscripts are not in the lowest whole-numberMolecules, ratio, and Ions divide them by the greatest common factor.

Given Chemical Names, determine Chemical Formula


Calcium Nitrate
Ca2+ NO3Ca(NO3)2

Iron (III) Hydroxide


Fe3+ OHFe(OH)3

Zinc Phosphate
Zn2+ PO43Zn3(PO4)2

Copper (II) Oxide


Cu2+ O
2-

CuO

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Given Chemical Formula, determine Chemical Names


K2O NO2 KMnO4 Fe(OH)2 Cu2O Zn(NO3)2 Cr2(SO3)5
Potassium Oxide
Nitrogen Dioxide Potassium Permanganate Iron (II) Hydroxide Copper (I) Oxide Zinc Nitrate Chromium (V) Sulfite
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Hydrates (Hydrated Salts)


Ionic substances containing water molecules incorporated into their crystalline structure release water upon heating, absorb water under cool, humid conditions H2O H2O

Heat ()

- 4H2O
+4 H2O

- 2H2O
+ 2H2O

Anhydrous

Name of Ionic Salt


Cu(NO3)2.5H2O

PREFIX- HydrateAtoms,
Molecules, and Ions

Acid Nomenclature
Depends on the nomenclature ending of the anion that composes the acid. -ide: hydro-(anion root) ic acid
HCl
Acid of Binary -IDE

Hydrochloric acid

-ate: (anion root) -ic acid


HNO3 Nitric acid

-ite: (anion root) -ous acid


HNO2 Nitrous acid

Acid of Polyatomic Ion:-ATE -ITE


Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Acid Nomenclature
Exercises: HCl, HClO3, HClO4 HBr, HI, HClO, HClO2

Binary acid ends in -ide, add the prefix hydro- and change the ending to -ic acid HCl: hydrochloric acid HBr: hydrobromic acid HI: hydroiodic acid Acid of polyatomic ion ends in -ate, change ending to -ic acid Per-(oxyanion)-ate HClO3: chloric acid (oxyanion)-ate HClO4: perchloric acid (oxyanion)- ite
Hypo-(oxyanion)-ite

Acid of polyatomic ion ends in -ite, change the ending to -ous acid Atoms, Molecules, HClO2: chlorous acid and Ions HClO: hypochlorous acid

Acidic Salts and Basic Salts


Acid Salts: salts of weak polyprotic acids. Are not necessarily acidic, but do neutralize bases.

Examples:

Acid
HNO3 H2CO3 H3PO4

Salt
NaNO3 Na2CO3 Na3PO4

Acid Salt(s) -----------

NaHCO3 sodium hydrogen carbonate


Na2HPO4
sodium mono-hydrogen phosphate

NaH2PO4 sodium di-hydrogen


phosphate

Basic Salts: salts of weak polyhydroxy bases. They do not dissolve well in water and thus exists mostly in the undissociated solid salt state instead of the dissolved basic state. They do neutralize acids. Mg(OH) 2(s) Fe(OH)3(s) Cr(OH)
3(s))

Cr

3+

(aq) +

3 OH

(aq)

(Milk of Magnesia)

solid salt

dissolved (aq) base

Solubility Rule: All OH- are insoluble except for IA metals, NH4+ & slightly soluble Ca 2+ Ba2+ & Sr2+

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Basic Organic Nomenclature: Alkanes and Alcohols


Organic Chemistry: deals with carbon compounds which form long chains of C atoms bonded to other C atoms. Alcohols: like alkanes,

Alkanes: Carbon-hydrogen compounds with single bonds


Name Methane Ethane # Carbons 1 2 Structural Formula CH4 CH3CH3

but with organic OH substituting one H.

Methanol CH3OH

Ethanol CH3CH2OH
Propanol Butanol Pentanol Hexanol Heptanol Octanol
Atoms, Nonanol Molecules, and Ions

Propane
Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane

3
4 5 6 7 8 9

CH3CH2CH3
CH3CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3 CH2 CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Decane

10 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Decanol