Post Harvest Physiology & Technology

 


Physiology Characteristic & Activities Post-Harvest Technology Physiology Damage Quality Evaluation

Fresh Fruit & Vegetables are Alive!

Living Indicators  Consume – O2 – Substrates  Metabolically active – – – – – – Tissue softening Starch to sugars Sorbitol to fructose Organic acids decreasing Flavor volatiles increasing Color changes  Evolve – – – – CO2 Heat Ethylene Lose H2O through epidermis .

Minimize these changes Extend the life span of the fruit/vegs.     Processed fruit/vegs Kill the fruit/vegs Sterilize to avoid spoiling Extend time of edible state .Objective of Storage    Fresh fruit and vegs.

Types of Fruit          Climacteric Apples Avocado Banana Mango Papaya Pears Tomato Melon. etc.          Non-climacteric Grapes Orange Pineaple Strawberries Lemons Blueberries Cherries Cucumber. . etc.

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Climacteric vs. Non-climacteric  Types of Fruit Respiration increases during ripening 100 80 60 40 20 0 Bloom Fruit Growth Respiration Climacteric Respiration Non-climacteric 10 Cell 20 division 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Senescence Cell enlargement Maturation Ripening HORT 319 .

Non-climacteric  Types of Fruit Ethylene content higher and increases more during ripening Fruit 100 Growth 80 60 40 20 0 Bloom Ethylene Climacteric Ethylene Non-climacteric 10 Cell 20 division 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Senescence Cell enlargement Maturation Ripening HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Climacteric vs.

Fruit Respiration in Response to Ethylene Non-climacteric 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 Relative respiration Rate dependent response to ethylene Amount of ethylene dictates the ultimate level of response 1000 10 1 0.1 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Days .

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Days .Fruit Respiration in Response to Ethylene Climacteric 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Non-rate dependent Relative respiration React to a threshold level to give about same response 1000 10 1 0.

 Climacteric fruit – Increased respiration at ripening – Ripen faster – Ethylene     Non-climacteric fruit – No increase in respiration – Ripen slower – Ethylene    Produce more Higher internal level Level increases at ripening Respond to applied ethylene in non-rate dependent fashion Produce less Lower internal levels No increase at ripening – Applied Ethylene  – Applied Ethylene  Rate dependent response .

Crops  Apples – 3-10 months – 40% stored     Stone fruit – 2-8 weeks Berries – 1-2 weeks    Pears – 2-7 months Strawberry – 1-5 days Grapes – 2-3 months Fig – 2-3 weeks Nuts – 1-4 years .Storage of Fresh Fruit .

Fruit various HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Methods of Storage Refrigeration  Temperature – Lowers     All enzymatic processes Respiration Reduce microbial growth Sensitivity to ethylene Above tissue freezing point -2ºC to 0ºC – Optimal temperature    Important to remove field heat quickly .

Methods of Storage Refrigeration  Humidity  – 97% RH = fruit does not lose moisture  – 95% RH = microbial – 90% RH growth favored – Wax coatings – 90% RH = poor – Shrink wraps microbial growth  Fruit is water in an expensive package Prevention Loss of moisture – Less product – 5% = shrivelling .

Methods of Storage Modified Atmosphere Storage  Examples – Burying apples – Film wraps – Chemical packages to absorb ethylene   Not closely controlled How does it work? – Temperature – Humidity – Control of atmospheric gases    CO2 O2 Ethylene .

Methods of Storage Controlled Atmosphere Storage   CA storage Control – Temperature/humidity – Oxygen – Carbon dioxide – Ethylene  For long term storage .

Methods of Storage CA Storage of Apples   Oxygen Level Lower to 3% from 21% – Reduce respiration – Reduce ethylene production If too low – Anaerobic metabolism – Off flavors   Carbon dioxide Level Increase to 5% from 0.03% – Reduce respiration – Reduce ethylene production – Inhibit the breakdown of pectic substances If too high – Anaerobic metabolism – Off flavors   .

Methods of Storage CA Storage of Apples    Ethylene Level “One bad apple spoils the whole barrel” Ripe/damaged fruit Release ethylene Induce other fruit to ripen  Decrease sensitivity – Lower temperatures – Increase CO2 – Decrease O2    Reduce levels – Air ventilation – Electric fork lifts – Separate ripe from unripe fruit  Remove ethylene via potassium permanganate .

Post Harvest Disorders Superficial Scald   Most important storage disorder in apples Dark brown. slightly depressed   Caused by volatiles from the fruit Control – Air circulation – Antioxidants in post harvest dip – Do not store susceptible varieties .

Post Harvest Disorders Water core  Translucent areas in the flesh   Can be induced by excessive heat More common in over mature fruit .

Post Harvest Disorders Calcium-related Disorders  Bitter   pit  Sunburn Cork spot Cracking .

Post Harvest Disorders Calcium-related Disorders  Bitter pit  Sunburn   Cork spot Cracking .

Post Harvest Disorders Calcium-related Disorders   Bitter pit Sunburn  Cork  spot Cracking .

Post Harvest Disorders Calcium-related Disorders    Bitter pit Sunburn Cork spot  Cracking .

Post Harvest Disorders Calcium-related Disorders   Role of calcium Functions in plant – Regulate cell division – Regulate nitrogen metabolism – Important component of cell wall   Not mobile in plant Moves slowly in soil – Compete with Mg and K for uptake Worse under high temperature conditions   Control: Calcium applications to the fruit .

Post Harvest Disorders Calcium-related Disorders  Bitter pit – Impairment of selective permeability of cell membranes – Cell injury and necrosis – Browning begins internally – Develops external blemishes  Sunburn – Direct sun exposure – Fruit tissue loses water – Cell collapses – Tissue under skin collapses .

Post Harvest Disorders Calcium-related Disorders  Deep cracking – Cell walls become thick and lose elasticity – Fruit crack after rain or irrigation  Cork spot – After cell division cortical cells form additional cell walls within original cell – Tissue hardens. ruptures. and browns .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful