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Traffic Statistics Analysis
Issue 2.0

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Reference
 31160978-BSC Traffic Statistic

Manual Volume I
 31033203-BSS Troubleshooting

Manual

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 Upon completion of this course, you will be

able to:  Know the traffic statistics system structure  Understand some often-used traffic measurement items  Locate some problems through the traffic statistics system

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. All rights reserved Page 4 . LTD.Chapter 1 Brief introduction to BSC traffic statistics Chapter 2 Often-used traffic statistics items analysis Chapter 3 Locate problem through traffic analysis Chapter 4 Case study for traffic statistics HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Main Structure of Traffic Statistics System
BM1

Call process data
BM data Hardware data

BM

Signaling data

AM/CM
BAM HUB WS1
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M2000 Server WSn
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Menu Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics
 Task list management

 BSC traffic statistics platform provides the function of registering a new task, deleting a registered task and refreshing the task list.
 Task management

 BSC traffic statistics platform provides the function of modifying task name, modifying statistic period of permanent task, hanging up task, activating task, querying task information, querying task result and querying task running state.

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Menu Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics
 Template management

 Template management provides the function of defining item template, object template, time template, user-defined statistic items and refreshing all templates.

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 The maximum number of subtasks in each BM module is 3000.  Items regarding to maximum/minimum value can not be repeatedly registered in all tasks. All rights reserved Page 8 . the maximum number of tasks of each BM module is 200.  One task can only include 60 original items. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..Menu Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics  Limitations  The traffic measurement task is registered using the BSC traffic statistics console.

.Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  TCH Congestion Rate  TCH Congestion Rate (excluding handover) = (TCH seizure failures for call + TCH seizure failures for very early assignment) / (attempted TCH seizures + attempted TCH seizures for very early assignment) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 9 .

. All rights reserved Page 10 . LTD.Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  TCH Congestion Rate  TCH congestion rate (including handover)= (TCH seizure failures for call + TCH seizure failures for very early assignment + TCH seizure failures for intra BSC incoming cell handover (no radio resource) + TCH seizure failures for inter BSC incoming cell handover (no radio resource) ) / (attempted TCH seizures (all) + attempted TCH seizures for very early assignment + attempted TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover + attempted TCH seizures for interBSC incoming cell handover) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD. All rights reserved Page 11 ..Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  TCH Congestion Rate  TCH congestion rate (TCH overflow) = Attempted TCH seizures meeting a TCH blocked state / Attempted TCH seizures (all) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 12 ..Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  SDCCH congestion rate (SDCCH overflow)  SDCCH congestion rate (SDCCH overflow)= times of attempted seizures meeting an SDCCH blocked state / attempted SDCCH seizures (all) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

.Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  TCH Call Drop Rate  TCH Call Drop Rate = TCH Call Drops / Successful TCH Seizures (all) *100%  SDCCH Call Drop Rate  SDCCH Call Drop Rate = SDCCH call drops / successful SDCCH seizures (all) *100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 13 . LTD.

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  Handover Success Rate  Inter cell handover success rate= (Successful incoming internal inter cell handovers + Successful incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) / (Attempted incoming internal inter cell handovers+ Attempted incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Attempted outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Attempted outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) *100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved Page 14 .

LTD.Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  Handover Success Rate  Inter cell radio handover success rate= (Successful incoming internal inter cell handovers + Successful incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) / (Incoming internal inter cell handovers + Inter BSC incoming cell handovers + Outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Inter BSC outgoing cell handovers) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 15 ..

All rights reserved Page 16 . TCH congestion rate. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. outgoing and incoming handover success rate. SDCCH congestion rate..Exercise  Write down the key items of the network  Answer: The most important items for the network are: call drop rate. traffic volume etc.

All rights reserved Page 17 ..Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item MTP Measurement Function Cell Measurement Function Power control Measurement Call Drop Measurement BSC Measurement Function SCCP Measurement Function A-interface Operation and management statistic A-interface Equipment Site Initialization Measurement Function BSC Cell Broadcast Maintenance statistic A-interface Trunk Board Measurement Function message statistic CPU Measurement Function HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

.Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item Defined Adjacent Cell BTS Initial Measurement Cell Broadcast Statistic Outgoing Inter cell handover Measurement Function Receiving Quality Measurement Receiving Level Measurement Measurement Function Incoming Inter cell handover Function Up-Down Link Balance Measurement Function Undefined Adjacent Cell Measurement Function LAPD Link Measurement Measurement Function GPRS Related Measurement Function Cell Frequency Scan Function HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 18 . LTD.

. LTD. All rights reserved Page 19 .Chapter 1 Brief introduction to BSC traffic statistics Chapter 2 Often-used traffic statistics items analysis Chapter 3 Locate problem through traffic analysis Chapter 4 Case study for traffic statistics HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Systematical logic  From whole system to specific cell  Integrality  Observe the change trend of the items for more than one week and the changing trend of each day..  Relativity  Relationship between various kinds of traffic statistics items HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 20 .

if any important items (such as call drop rate or handover success rate) are abnormal.  During analyzing. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Analysis process  First we shall analyze and compare the item of BSC measurement function to have a rough idea for the whole network. we shall do further detailed analysis for the corresponding items. LTD.. All rights reserved Page 21 .

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. decide whether some further analysis should be considered or not..Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis Analysis process Check the cell that has abnormal items (call drop. All rights reserved Page 22 . congestion. Base on whole percentage and absolute times (call drop. handover failure and so on). congestion. LTD. handover failure and so on).

All rights reserved Page 23 .. LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Circuit paging (A-interface) successful rate  Immediate assignment successful rate  TCH call drop rate  TCH and SDCCH congestion rate  Handover success rate  Interference band HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Circuit paging (A-interface) success rate  Relate to “ATT ”.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 24 . coverage area and random access performance.  Relate to the paging re-send mechanism implemented by BSS or MSC. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

If there is no channel available.. MS’s access will be bared for some time. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. BSC will send immediate assignment rejected message which indicates the failure of immediate assignment.  The interference and collision of random access will affect immediate assignment successful rate. BTS will apply a channel from BSC. LTD. At the same time. All rights reserved Page 25 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Immediate assignment success rate  When BTS receives a Random Access message from MS.

. − TCH lost radio connections (Error indication). All rights reserved Page 26 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH call drop rate  Possible causes can be − TCH lost radio connections (Connection failure). − Ground link disconnection when TCH seized (Abis). LTD. − Call drop during handover HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD..Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH call drop formula and measurement point  TCH Call Drop Rate = TCH Call Drop / Successful TCH Seizures (all) *100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 27 .

All rights reserved Page 28 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  RF lost rate  TCH RF Lost Rate = (times of radio link disconnection when TCH seized (connection failure) + times of radio link disconnection when TCH seized (error indication)) / successful TCH seizures (all) * 100%  SDCCH RF Lost Rate = (times of radio link disconnection when SDCCH seized (connection failure) + times of radio link disconnection when SDCCH seized (error indication)) / successful SDCCH seizures (all) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

. LTD.  When the load of the cell overruns the system limitation. All rights reserved Page 29 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH congestion rate (TCH overflow)  It is a key item used to estimate the cell load. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. try to distribute some traffic to adjacent cells.

. All rights reserved Page 30 . LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Causes of TCH congestion ( TCH seizure failure )  Assignment failure  Equipment fault  Invalid ground resource  Ground resource already allocated  Illegal message contents  Radio interface failure and return to original channel  No channel available HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD.. All rights reserved Page 31 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH Congestion Rate  TCH congestion rate (including handover)= (TCH seizure failures for call + TCH seizure failures for very early assignment + TCH seizure failures for intra BSC incoming cell handover (no radio resource) + TCH seizure failures for inter BSC incoming cell handover (no radio resource) ) / (attempted TCH seizures (all) + attempted TCH seizures for very early assignment + attempted TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover + attempted TCH seizures for interBSC incoming cell handover) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. All rights reserved Page 32 . LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  SDCCH congestion rate (SDCCH overflow)  SDCCH congestion rate (SDCCH overflow)= times of attempted seizures meeting an SDCCH blocked state / attempted SDCCH seizures (all) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. LTD.  Incoming interBSC inter cell handover and the handover type is SDCCH handover.  Incoming intraBSC inter cell and intra-cell handover and the handover type is SDCCH handover.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  SDCCH congestion measurement point  Attempted SDCCH seizure meeting a SDCCH blocked state is counted when there is a SDCCH seizure but no SDCCH available.  Attempted SDCCH seizures (all)  Receive CH_REQ and the channel type is SDCCH. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 33 .

there are different items. incoming/outgoing. All rights reserved Page 34 . the problems can be located more rapidly.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Handover measurement point  For different objects such as BSC. LTD. inter-cell/intra-cell handover and so on.  By analyzing different items. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. band (900/1800).

.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Handover Success Rate  Inter cell handover success rate= (Successful incoming internal inter cell handovers + Successful incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) / (Attempted incoming internal inter cell handovers+ Attempted incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Attempted outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Attempted outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) *100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 35 . LTD.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 36 . LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Causes of handover  Power budget  Poor uplink signal quality  Poor downlink signal quality  Low uplink signal strength  Low downlink signal strength  Too large TA value  Other reasons  Note: Handover types and times with all adjacent cells are listed in outgoing and incoming inter cell handover measurement function..

.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis Handover failure reasons No available channel Illegal frequency Timer timeout Illegal channel Illegal TA Other reasons HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 37 . LTD.

LTD.. All rights reserved Page 38 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH interference band measurement  The result in each TCH interference band shows the average number of idle TCH within this interference band in the statistic period. because of different density of base station and the frequency reuse pattern. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the acceptable interference level is different. which reflects the average interference level.  In urban and suburb area.

Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis
 Cell frequency scan

 Shows the signal strength received by main antenna and diversity antenna.  Reflects the interference level for specific frequency.

 The difference between the measurement results of main and diversity antenna reflects the difference between the two antennas such as direction, gain, path loss and so on. It is an important way to know the diversity receiving performance.

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Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis
 Receiving level measurement

 Receiving level measurement is based on TRX.
 The receiving level is divided into 6 bands

 Band 0 : -110~-100dBm

 Band1 : -100~-95dBm
 Band 2 : -95~-90dBm  Band 3 : -90~-80dBm  Band 4 : -80~-70dBm  Band 5 : > -70dBm

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Exercise
 List the often-used traffic statistics tasks that we use to locate and

analyze the problem.
 Answer: the often-used traffic statistics tasks are

 BSC measurement function  TCH and SDCCH measurement function  Inter-cell and intra-cell handover measurement function  Outgoing and incoming inter cell handover measurement function  Up-down link balance measurement function  Call drop measurement function

 Cell frequency scan, etc.
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Chapter 1 Brief introduction to BSC traffic statistics Chapter 2 Often-used traffic statistics items analysis Chapter 3 Locate problem through traffic analysis Chapter 4 Case study for traffic statistics HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 42 .

Traffic Statistics Analysis General method for traffic analysis BSC Measurement Function High call drop rate High congestion rate Low handover success rate SDCCH performance Outgoing handover Incoming handover TCH performance TCH performance TCH performance Link Balance Link balance Link balance HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. Alarm data Alarm data Alarm data Call drops All rights reserved Page 43 .

 Analyze objects  Coverage  Quality  Handover  Signaling  Others HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis  Combine traffic statistics analysis with other optimization method  Drive test: simulate common subscriber’s behavior. All rights reserved Page 44 ..

All rights reserved Page 45 ..Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  TCH call drop analysis Cell with high call drop rate Alarm and hardware fault Cell performance statistics Call drop measurement Handover measurement Call drop times Average uplink level at TCH call drops Average down link level at TCH call drop Average uplink quality at TCH call drop Average downlink quality at TCH call drop Average TA value at TCH call drop Outgoing inter cell handover success rate Incoming inter cell handover success rate Interference band Causes of call drop Handover failure and re-establish failure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

LTD.  BQ call drop: high receiving signal strength and poor quality.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Call drop types  Edge call drop: low receiving signaling strength. the call is normal then call drop happened suddenly. large TA.  Short distance call drop: low receiving signal strength and small TA.. All rights reserved Page 46 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Sudden call drop: before call drop.

− Add the necessary neighbor.  Solutions − Add new site to guarantee the effective continuous coverage. “handover threshold”. − Adjust antenna height and antenna downtilt.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Edge call drop  Causes − MS is out of cell’s effective coverage area. etc. − Isolated site. − “Island” phenomenon caused by over shooting or missing neighbor... use high gain antenna − Modify some parameters: “SACCH multi-frames”. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. “handover statistic time”. All rights reserved Page 47 . “Radio link timeout counter”.

Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Short distance call drop  Causes − Poor coverage caused by complicated terrain or high dense building. LTD.. − Adjust parameters related to call drop. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 48 . make the main lobe point to high traffic area.  Solutions − Increase EIRP. − Adjust antenna direction and downtilt.

. ▪ Self-interference caused by BTS. − Solve the problem of transmission quality.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  BQ call drop( high signal strength)  Causes − High transmission bit error rate (BER). LTD. − Optimize frequency planning. All rights reserved Page 49 . ▪ Interference caused by repeater. avoid “island”. ▪ Interference caused by radar or other similar equipment. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − Uplink or downlink interference.  Solutions − Try to find the external interference source. ▪ Interference caused by improper frequency planning. − Adjust antenna system.

we shall know the type of the call drop. All rights reserved Page 50 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.  Analyze the cells’ traffic load and total call drop times.  Analyze the call drop measurement function.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Overall process for call drop analysis  Find out cells with high call drop rate.  First of all.  Classify the call drop according to the character.  Check the interference band..

All rights reserved Page 51 . power amplifier.  Unbalanced up-down link (TMA.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  The main causes for call drop  Interference (internal and external). antenna direction). LTD..  Poor coverage (coverage hole and island). and TMA).  Improper parameter settings ( RLT and SACCH multiframes).  Improper handover (neighbor planning and handover parameter setting).  Equipment problem (TRX. power amplifier. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 52 ..  Through drive test.  Use spectrum analyzer to find the interference source. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Block TRX in turn and monitor the interference measurement results. check the average signal strength and quality of call drops.  Dispose equipment fault (such as: TRX self-oscillation.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Interference analysis process  Analyze the appearance period of the interference. check the interference and signal quality. LTD.  Calculate the handover caused by poor quality and check the average receiving quality level for each TRX. antenna inter-modulation).  In call drop measurement function.

LTD. the signal strength is too low when call drop happens. the average uplink or downlink signal strength is too low. or the TA value is abnormal. the potential neighbor cells with high average signal strength can be find. a lot of low signal strength records can be found. All rights reserved Page 53 .. − In inter-cell handover measurement function. − In receiving level measurement function.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Coverage problem analysis  Traffic items − In power control measurement function. the average receiving signal strength is too low when handover is triggered. − In undefined adjacent cell measurement function. − In call drop measurement. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 54 . − In outgoing inter-cell handover measurement function ▪ check whether the handover successful rate to some cells is low. ▪ Check whether the maximum distance between MS and BTS is abnormal in several continuous periods.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Coverage problem analysis  Judgment method − In Power Control measurement ▪ Check whether the average distance between MS and BTS comply with design. ▪ check the number of unsuccessful handover with unsuccessful reversion (call drop caused by handover). HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

All rights reserved Page 55 .. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Coverage problem analysis  Disposing method − Drive test in the suspected poor coverage area. LTD. − Adjust the following parameters based on the drive test results ▪ BTS transmitting power ▪ Antenna downtilt and height ▪ RXLEVEL_ACCESS_MIN − Add site to ensure the continuous coverage.

. check whether there are many unsuccessful outgoing cell handovers with unsuccessful reversions. LTD. check whether the signal strength and the number of measurement reports for the undefined neighbor cell are high. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − In undefined adjacent cell measurement function. All rights reserved Page 56 . − In inter-cell handover measurement function.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Improper handover (neighbor planning and handover parameters)  Disposing method − Check the handover parameters to see whether there are improper parameter settings.

− In call drop measurement function.. − In power control measurement function. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 57 . LTD. and antenna directions)  Disposing method − Analyze “up-down link balance measurement function” statistics result and confirm whether the uplink and downlink are balanced.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Imbalanced up-down link (tower amplifier. analyze the average receiving signal strength and quality for both the uplink and downlink. power amplifier. analyze the average receiving signal strength for both the uplink and downlink.

it means uplink is better than downlink HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop Balance between uplink and downlink Link balance rank 1 2 Range of D ≤ -15 -14 ~ -10 Let D= (downlink receiving level − uplink receiving level) − (MS sensitivity − BTS sensitivity). All rights reserved 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Page 58 -9 ~ -6 -5 ~ -3 -2 ~ 0 0 1~2 3~5 6~9 10 ~ 14 ≥15 . it means downlink is better than uplink If D<0. it means uplink and downlink are balanced If D>0. LTD. Usually the MS sensitivity is 102 dBm and the BTS sensitivity is 108dBm. The formula can be simplified as − D= downlink receiving level − uplink receiving level – 6dB If D=0..

Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Improper radio parameter setting (Radio Link timeout. LTD. check SACCH multi-frames. check the radio link timeout − In cell property data. SACCH multi-frames)  Judgment method − In system information data. All rights reserved Page 59 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. and the timer for radio link connection (T3105).

tower amplifier. there are many TCH seizure failures due to equipment failure.)  Judgment method − In TCH measure function. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. TRX alarm).. power amplifier.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Equipment problem (TRX. A interface PCM synchronization alarm. etc.  Disposing method − Monitor transmission and board alarms (FTC board failure. − In call drop measurement function. LAPD link disconnected. many TCH seizure failures due to A interface problem. there are many call drops due to ground links. All rights reserved Page 60 . − In TCH measurement function. analyze whether transmission is disconnected or some boards are faulty.

All rights reserved Page 61 .. LTD. The cause and mechanism of SDCCH call drop are almost the same as TCH.Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Call Drop SDCCH call drop Refer to TCH call drop analysis. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover Handover analysis Low Handover Success Rate Alarm (Clock).Illegal TA 4.Illegal Carrier 3. All rights reserved Page 62 .Others HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. Hardware Fault Handover Measurement Function TCH Measurement Function Incoming Inter Cell Failure Outgoing Inter Cell Failure Cause of Failure in BSC Incoming Inter cell Handover Measurement Function Outgoing Inter cell Handover Measurement Function 1.No available channel 6.Illegal Channels 2.Timer out 5.

Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Handover failure analysis  Causes of handover failure − Improper handover parameters. All rights reserved Page 63 . − Hardware fault (TRX board fault). LTD. − Congestion − Interference − Coverage − Clock fault (Internal clock. external clock) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

− Find out handover failure relation (failure to all the neighbor cells or part of the neighbor cells).Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Handover failure analysis  Disposing method − Find out the cells with low handover success rate. − Compare the incoming cell handover failures and outgoing cell handover failures. LTD. − Register the task to measure the incoming cell handover and outgoing cell handover.. All rights reserved Page 64 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − Find the out the cells with high handover failures.

If so. layer handover hysteresis. Check the parameter settings and adjust them (layer setting. PBGT threshold. then it indicates that there may be ping-pong handover. BQ and handover function switch are suitable or not. All rights reserved Page 65 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Improper parameter settings  Disposing method − Check whether the handover threshold such as TA. it indicates the edge handover threshold is too low. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.). LTD. If handover times divided by call times is larger than 3. inter cell handover hysteresis. − Check whether the successful TCH seizures for handover are much more than successful TCH seizures for call. − Check whether the average signal strength is low when the handover happens. etc..

LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the equipment may have some fault. − TCH availability is abnormal.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Hardware fault  Problem description − The target cell has idle channels but when applying for the channels CH_ACT_NACK or TIMEOUT message appears. All rights reserved Page 66 .. − If the call drop rate and congestion rate are both high.

− Check whether there is clock alarm. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 67 . LTD. TRX alarm). A interface PCM sync alarm. − Analyze whether the transmission is disconnected or the boards have some fault (for example: the TRX is damaged).Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Hardware fault  Disposing process − Monitor transmission and board alarms (FTC board failure. LAPD link disconnected..

check the neighbor cell’s traffic. All rights reserved Page 68 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Congestion  Objects needed to be analyzed − Cells with low incoming handover success rate. − For low incoming handover success rate.  Locating the problem − In incoming inter cell handover measurement function. LTD.. check whether many handover failures are caused by congestion. − Neighbor of the cell with low incoming handover success rate. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − For low outgoing handover success rate. check the cell’s traffic .

and the antenna downtilt and height). RACH access threshold. load handover parameters.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Congestion  Disposing process − Adjust the cell’s coverage (adjust BTS transmitting power. LTD. − Adjust parameters (CRO. All rights reserved Page 69 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. cell priority and handover parameters). RXLEVEL_ACCESS_MIN. − Expand or adjust TRX configuration between high and low traffic cells.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Please write down the possible reasons that can cause the low radio handover success rate between BSCs.Question The item “radio handover success rate” is the ratio of successful handovers to handovers.. All rights reserved Page 70 . The handovers are counted when sending or receiving HO_CMD or HO_REQ_RSP in the handover process. LTD.

Answer  There are two kinds of outgoing handovers. MS will send access request to a wrong cell.  The possible reasons are list as following.  If the CGI is wrong. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. MSC will send the handover request with wrong CGI. and the other is inter-BSC handover. All rights reserved Page 71 . LTD. Then MS will send access request to a wrong cell. For inter-BSC handover:  If the uplink signal strength of the target cell is low.. Then MS cannot access. Thus the handover fails. the MS cannot access the target cell. One is intra-BSC handover. Thus the handover fails  If the target cell is a wrong cell which has the same BCCH and BSIC as the expected target cell. It has the same effect as the above one.

.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  TCH congestion  Main causes − Insufficient system capacity − Interference − Coverage − Antenna and feeder problems − Improper parameter setting (system information parameters) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 72 . LTD.

height. etc. Rx_Lev_Access_Min.  Disposing process − Expand or adjust the configuration between high and low traffic cells − Adjust coverage (adjust BTS transmitting power. downtilt. − There are many channel request rejections due to channel busy. − Incoming handover measurement shows that there are too many unsuccessful incoming cell handovers (congestion). − Adjust parameters (CRO..). LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. antenna direction. load handover parameters. cell priorities. All rights reserved Page 73 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Insufficient system capacity or traffic imbalanced  Judgment method − The traffic is high and is imbalanced between cells. handover parameters).

 Disposing process − Refer to TCH call drop caused by interference. − Downlink Interference makes MS’s DSC decrease to 0.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Interference (external and internal interference)  Problem description − Interference brings unacceptable BER which affects the assignment process. and this is a potential reason for TCH seizure failure. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − If TCH seizure failures (including handover) minus attempted TCH seizures meeting TCH overflow is large. then there may be some interference.. All rights reserved Page 74 . then MS reselects to another cell with low signal strength.

check the measurement report numbers in each rank. − Check antenna direction.. − In Up-down link balance measurement function. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. downtilt and connection. All rights reserved Page 75 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Antenna and feeder problem  Disposing process − In cell frequency scan measurement function. check the measurement results got from main receiving antenna and diversity receiving antenna.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Improper parameter settings  Check the relevant parameters such as RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. handover threshold etc.. LTD. BTS transmitting power. CRO.. All rights reserved Page 76 .

Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Coverage  Refer to coverage analysis for TCH call drop rate.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 77 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD.. All rights reserved Page 78 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  SDCCH congestion  Main causes − Improper parameter settings (system information) − Insufficient system capacity − Improper LAC planning − Interference HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

T3212). − Adjust the location update related parameters (dual-band network parameters such as CRO. − The above formula shows the ratio between number of EST_IND messages that MS sends to BSC and the immediate assignment commands that BSC sends to BTS. RACH minimum access level. It indicate whether there are some improper parameters in the system information. LTD. MS Max Retrans. Tx-integer).Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  Improper parameter settings  Judgment method − Successful immediate assignments / immediate assignment transmissions >85%. All rights reserved Page 79 .  Disposing process − Adjust the access parameters (Random access error threshold.. cell reselection hysteresis. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 80 . LTD. − Massive location updates happen simultaneously..Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  Insufficient system capacity  Problem description − Many location updates happen at the border of different location areas.  Disposing method − Properly plan the location area − Configure more SDCCHs − Use SDCCH dynamic allocation − Add more TRX HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

 The border of different location area is at the high traffic area. LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  Improper LAC planning  The border of different location area is the street. All rights reserved Page 81 .. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 82 . − Interference in the system.  Disposing process − Properly set the RACH minimum access level − Eliminate the interference HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  Interference  Problem description − RACH minimum access level is low. which will bring a lot of illusory SDCCH channel requests.

Chapter 1 Brief introduction to BSC traffic statistics Chapter 2 Often-used traffic statistics items analysis Chapter 3 Locate problem through traffic analysis Chapter 4 Case study for traffic statistics HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. All rights reserved Page 83 . LTD.

. Sometimes handover success rate is lower than before.Case Study-One (Handover)  Problem description  Handover success rate is always very low because of the congestion (about 70%)  In the evening of 3rd. LTD. Dec. All rights reserved Page 84 . site D located in urban is expanded from “S2/2/2” to “S3/3/3”.  Refer to busy hour traffic statistics of 3rd. Dec. lots of subscribers complain about the network quality. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. The busy hour handover success rate does not get improved after expansion. At the same time.

44% 91.06% 91.61% 0 0 0 5.Nov Cell Handover success rate Radio handover success rate Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (no channel available) Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (others) TCH congestion D_1 D_2 D_3 C_3 A_2 A_3 F_2 E_1 E_2 E_3 B_3 53.36% 88.36% 66.67% 61.80% 76.23% 48.75% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.73% 83.40% 77.07% 93.33% 0 0 0.10% 94.53% 397 389 314 502 0 0 0 26 0 0 0 All rights reserved 18 2 51 25 33 20 12 63 2 6 5 Page 85 47.31% 40.25% 83.Case Study-One (Handover) Traffic statistics for 24th.41% 49.22% 92.02% 93.82% 57..48% 90.98% 90. LTD.25% 78. .67% 89.14% 76.91% 95.53% 67.

Dec Cell Handover success rate Radio handover success rate Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (no channel available) Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (others) TCH congestion D_1 D_2 D_3 C_3 A_2 A_3 F_2 E_1 49.00% E_2 E_3 B_3 61.77% 50.61% 64.71% 68.60% 62.58% 70.06% 0.00% 1.08% 66.92% 60.37% 0.34% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.02% 60.00% 0.95% 60.69% 50.58% 22.48% 65.45% 0 0 0 All rights reserved 20 0 11 Page 86 0.08% 17 1 0 113 0 0 0 1 246 161 86 166 0 0 13 55 5. .00% 0.61% 63% 52.00% 0. LTD.3% 82.27% 0.3% 78.Case Study-One (Handover) Traffic statistics for 13th.55% 68.3% 71..56% 0.75% 56.56% 66.95% 58.

LTD. All rights reserved Page 87 .Case Study-One (Handover) Site location HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

. Therefore we can suspect that the handover problem may be caused by site D.Case Study-One (Handover)  Analysis  Analyzing the traffic statistics before expansion and after expansion. In Urban area many cells’ radio handover success rate decreased after expansion. LTD. we find that before the expansion the handover failure is caused by congestion and the radio handover success rate is normal. therefore we conclude that the cause of handover failure after expansion has been changed. All rights reserved Page 88 . we find lots of cells’ radio handover success rate are low and these cells have handover relationship with site D.  Analyzing the urban site location diagram. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

 Refer to busy hour traffic statistics of 17th. Thus the problem is solved. Dec.. the high call drop rate is caused by handover failures. All rights reserved Page 89 . Finally we affirm the low handover success rate is caused by the wrong setting of switches in TMU board. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. we find the state of TMU board is abnormal and clock is unstable. LTD.  The day after processing. For sure. the busy hour handover success rate is higher than 90%.Case Study-One (Handover)  Analysis  After checking the hardware of site D through maintenance console.

80% Radio handover success rate 95.58% 93. LTD.47% 95.84% 88.90% 96.00% 3.92% D_1 D_2 D_3 C_3 A_2 A_3 F_2 E_1 E_2 E_3 B_3 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.69% 93.88% 96.56% 98.Dec Cell Handover success rate 86.47% 93.00% 18.40% 0.45% 96. All rights reserved Page 90 .12% 89.44% 0..Case Study-One (Handover) Traffic statistics for 17th.55% 97.09% 95.59% 93.00% 0.79% 95.94% 91.55% 97.00% 0.43% 92.51% 94.26% 0.57% 86.00% 7.40% 91.89% Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (no channel available) 47 10 0 80 1 0 0 1 0 0 10 Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (others) 10 15 10 7 21 6 1 6 2 1 1 TCH congestion 13.00% 1.48% 0.

 Handover problem sometimes is accompanied with call drops and others. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 91 .Case Study-One (Handover)  Conclusion and suggestion  Pay attention to the difference between radio handover success rate and handover success rate because it can help us to locate handover problem efficiently. it is an important clew for locating and solving problems.. LTD.

It means the downlink is better than uplink. High call drop rate is caused by imbalance between uplink and downlink.  In cell call drop measurement function.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  In up-down link balance measurement function: we find one TRX is normal. LTD. we find that a cell’s call drop rate in busy hour is large than 2%. while the downlink level is 26 (-84dbm). Result of rank 1 is 0. while that of rank 11 is 5833. All rights reserved Page 92 .Case Study-Two (Call drop)  Fault description  When we analyze the traffic statistics. we find that the average uplink level of call drop is 1 (-109dBm). but there may be some problem with the other one.

Case Study-Two (Call drop)  Analysis  We can exclude the problem of antenna and feeder because only one of the two TRXs is abnormal. the problem is solved. Therefore we think that the problem may be caused by the uplink channel of TRX or CDU. All rights reserved Page 93 .. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  After we change the CDU. LTD.

Case Study-Two (Call drop)  Conclusion and suggestion  To find the cause of call drop.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 94 . coverage etc.) and then register more detailed traffic measurement tasks.  DT also is a effective method to find call drop problem. interference. we should register the following useful traffic statistics: − TCH measurement function − Call drop measurement function − Inter cell handover measurement function − Up-down link balance measurement function  By analyzing the result of the above traffic statistics. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. we can locate the cause of the call drop (handover.

But it is very strange that there are dozens of SDCCH congestions in busy hour.  Analyzing traffic statistics we find that in the congested cell.Case Study-three (SDCCH congestion)  Fault description  In the network. we find that it caused by SDCCH congestion and the congestion only exists in a few sites. the radio link connection success rate is low. Each cell has one SDCCH/8 channel. it can deal with 300-400 SDCCH seizures. The configuration of all the related BTSs is S1/1/1. After analyzing the traffic statistics. LTD. attempted SDCCH seizures are from 300 to 400 in a certain hour. All rights reserved Page 95 . Normally.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

 After adding more fixed SDCCHs and switching on “Dynamic SDCCH allocation” function. we find that most of the location update happened in a specific 5 minutes. we find that 4 or 5 trains passed by in this period. We find that most of the SDCCH seizures are used for location update.  In SDCCH measurement function. After checking the train timetable. a large amount of location updates happen simultaneously. So we can conclude that SDCCH congestion shall be caused by massive location updates. the problem is solved. All rights reserved Page 96 .Case Study-three (SDCCH congestion)  Analysis  Register “SDCCH measurement function” and analyze the result. When the trains pass by. we find that the congested BTSs are located at the border of two location areas along the railway.. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. After we analyze the site distribution.

.  Then check the parameter settings. interference.  Set the parameter and plan the location area properly to decrease the SDCCH congestion. and then analyze the traffic statistics to find the cause of the problem (Location update. to do further analysis. All rights reserved Page 97 .Case Study-three (SDCCH blocking)  Conclusion and suggestion  For SDCCH congestion.). firstly we should register SDCCH measurement function. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. location area planning etc. call setup etc. SDCCH handover.. LTD.  Adding SDCCH channels or enabling dynamic SDCCH allocation function can solve the congestion caused by insufficient capacity.

All rights reserved Page 98 ..Summary Summary  Traffic statistics system basics  Key traffic measurement items  Traffic statistics analysis method  Some cases HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

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