Chapter 12

Multiple Access

Figure 12.1 Data link layer divided into two functionality-oriented sublayers

Figure 12.2 Taxonomy of multiple-access protocols

12-1 RANDOM ACCESS

In random access or contention methods, no station is superior to another station and none is assigned the control over another. No station permits, or does not permit, another station to send. At each instance, a station that has data to send uses a procedure defined by the protocol to make a decision on whether or not to send.
Figure 12.3 Frames in a pure ALOHA network

3 ALOHA network The earliest random-access method .It tries sending the frame again after a random amount of time .If it does not receive the Ack within 2times maximum propagation delay .Figure 13.developed in 1970s Designed to be used on wireless Local area Network at 9600bps Based on Following rules •Multiple Access •Any station can send a frame when it has to send a frame •Acknowledgment •After sending a frame the station waits for an acknowledgment .

4 Procedure for pure ALOHA protocol .Figure 12.

defer transmission Human analogy: don’t interrupt others! collisions can still occur:   CSMA collisions  propagation delay means two nodes may not hear each other’s transmission entire packet transmission time wasted  collision:  .CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) •Sense before transmit •The possibility of collision still exist because of the propagation delay CSMA: listen before transmit:    If channel sensed idle: transmit entire frame If channel sensed busy.

Figure 12.8 Space/time model of the collision in CSMA .

Figure 12.9 Vulnerable time in CSMA .

If the line is Idle station sends the frame immediately(with a probability of 1) .10 Behavior of three persistence methods It defines the procedure for a station that senses a busy medium This method has two variations I-PERSISTANT Station senses the line .If the line is Idle station sends the frame immediately •If the line is not Idle station waits for a random period of time and then senses the line again .and refrain from sending with a probability 1-p Station runs a Random number between 1-100 No Persistent •Station senses the line .this method increases the chance of collision p-PERSISTANT If the line is Idle station sends the frame with probability p .Figure 12.

or collision .11 Flow diagram for three persistence methods Figure 12. idleness.Figure 12.15 Energy level during transmission.

12 Collision of the first bit in CSMA/CD Figure 12.Figure 12.13 Collision and abortion in CSMA/CD .

14 Flow diagram for the CSMA/CD .Figure 12.

. if the station finds the channel busy. it does not restart the timer of the contention window. In CSMA/CA.Figure 12. it stops the timer and restarts it when the channel becomes idle.16 Timing in CSMA/CA In CSMA/CA. the IFS can also be used to define the priority of a station or a frame.

Figure 12.17 Flow diagram for CSMA/CA .

Topics discussed in this section: Reservation Polling Token Passing Figure 12. A station cannot send unless it has been authorized by other stations. the stations consult one another to find which station has the right to send.18 Reservation access method .12-2 CONTROLLED ACCESS In controlled access.

Figure 12. concerns: •token overhead •single point of failure (token) .19 Select and poll functions in polling access method Polling: master node “invites” slave nodes to transmit in turn concerns: Token passing: •polling overhead control token passed from one node to •single point of failure (master) next sequentially.

Figure 12.20 Logical ring and physical topology in token-passing access method .

or through code. between different stations. Topics discussed in this section: Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) In FDMA. frequency. . the available bandwidth of the common channel is divided into bands that are separated by guard bands.12-3 CHANNELIZATION Channelization is a multiple-access method in which the available bandwidth of a link is shared in time.

Figure 12.21 Frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) .

Figure 12. . the bandwidth is just one channel that is timeshared between different stations.22 Time-division multiple access (TDMA) In TDMA.

23 Simple idea of communication with code .In CDMA. Figure 12. one channel carries all transmissions simultaneously.

.e.24 Chip sequences •Each station is assigned a code . etc) all users share same frequency. but each user has own “chipping” sequence (i.      unique “code” assigned to each user. satellite. i. code) to encode data encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence) decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence allows multiple users to “coexist” and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are “orthogonal”) Figure 12.e.. code set partitioning used mostly in wireless broadcast channels (cellular.which is a sequence of numbers called CHIPS •Chip period is always less than a bit period •Chip rate is always an integral multiple of bit rate .

25 Data representation in CDMA Figure 12.26 Sharing channel in CDMA .Figure 12.

In the following example Four stations sharing the link during the 1-bit interval is shown below There is only one sequence flowing through the channel .the sum of the sequences But each receiver can detect its data from the sum .

27 Digital signal created by four stations in CDMA Figure 12.Figure 12.28 Decoding of the composite signal for one in CDMA .

WALSH TABLE method is used The number of sequences in a Walsh table needs to be N = 2m.every element in the sequence is complemented If we multiply two sequences element by element and add the results .if they are different we get 0 (A.(-A) = -N  For the generation of the sequences .  The sequences are not chosen randomly  They should be orthogonal to each other Orthogonal sequences satisfies following properties    If we multiply a sequence by –1.B=0) A. we get a number called inner product If two sequences are same we get N (N=Number of sequences) . .A=N A.

we have [+1 +1] and [+1 −1]. We need to choose m = 7 and N = 27 or 128. [+1 +1 −1 −1]. Two stations b.Example 12. Four stations Solution We can use the rows of W2 and W4 in Figure 12. b.29: a. Example 12.7 What is the number of sequences if we have 90 stations in our network? Solution The number of sequences needs to be 2m.We can then use 90 of the sequences as the chips. and [+1 −1 −1 +1]. . For a four-station network we have [+1 +1 +1 +1]. For a two-station network. [+1 −1 +1 −1].6 Find the chips for a network with a.

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