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(D) Electrolytic and Chemical Cell

Learning Objectives:
You should be able to: Explain with examples the oxidation and reduction reactions at the electrodes of various chemical cells. Explain with examples the oxidation and reduction reactions at the electrodes of various electrolytic cells. State the differences between electrolytic and chemical cells in terms of basic structure, energy conversion and the transfer of electrons at the electrodes. Compare and contrast electrolytic and chemical cells with reference to the oxidation and reduction processes. Appreciate chemical cells as a source of renewable energy.
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Comparison of Electrolytic Cell and Chemical Cell


Electrolytic Cell Chemical Cell

Comparison of Electrolytic Cell and Chemical Cell


Electrolytic Cell Chemical Cell requires a source of electric does not requires a source of current electric current (uses E Energy) (releases E Energy) electrode may be of the same material eg Carbon electrical energy chemical energy electrode must be of two different metals chemical energy electrical energy

electron flow from the electrons flow from the positive electrode(anode) to more electropositive metal the negative electrode (negative terminal) to the (cathode) less electropositive metal(positive terminal)
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Oxidation & Reduction in Electrolytic Cells


Electrolysis of Molten lead (II) bromide, PbBr2

Oxidation & Reduction in Electrolytic Cells


Electrolysis of Molten lead (II) bromide, PbBr2 Anode
Br lose e to become Br2(g) 2Br(l) Br2(g) + 2e (1) (0) Br are oxidized to Br2 (Oxidation)

Cathode
Pb2+ gain e to become Pb(s) Pb2+(l) + 2e Pb(s) (+2) (0) Pb2+ are reduced to Pb (Reduction)

Br acts as reducing agent

Pb2+ acts as oxidizing agent

Electrons transfer from reducing agent to oxidizing agent


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Oxidation & Reduction in Electrolytic Cells


Electrolysis of Potassium Iodide solution, KI

Oxidation & Reduction in Electrolytic Cells


Electrolysis of Potassium Iodide solution, KI Anode
I lose e to become I2(aq) 2I(aq) I2(aq) + 2e (1) ( 0 ) I are oxidized to I2 (Oxidation) I acts as reducing agent

Cathode
H+ gain e to become H2 (g) 2H+(aq) + 2e H2 (g) (+1) (0) H+ are reduced to H2 (Reduction) H+ acts as oxidizing agent

Electrons transfer from reducing agent to oxidizing agent


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Oxidation & Reduction in Chemical Cells


Zinc strip

Copper strip

Anode Cathode Zinc act as negative Copper acts as positive terminal terminal Oxidation Half-equation: Reduction Half-equation Zn(s) Zn(aq) + 2e Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s)
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For both Electrolytic and Chemical Cells

The electrode at which oxidation occurs is called the anode.


The electrode at which reduction occurs is called the cathode.

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Comparison of Electrolytic Cell and Chemical Cell in terms of Redox Reaction


Similarities In both cells,
electrons are transferred from the reducing agent to the oxidizing agent oxidation occurs at the anode reduction occurs at the cathode

Electrolytic Cell Differences


oxidation occurs at + electrode anode = + electrode reduction occurs at electrode cathode = electrode

Chemical Cell
reduction occurs at + electrode cathode = + electrode oxidation occurs at electrode anode = electrode
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Others Chemical Cells


There are 2 types of cells
Primary cell ----- not rechargeable dry cell , Alkaline cell, Mercury cell Secondary cell ----- rechargeable nickel-cadmium cell, lead-acid accumulator nickel metal hydride cell, lithium ion cell, lithium polymer cell
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Practice D
1. An electrolysis process of copper(II) sulphate solution using carbon electrode has been carried out.
a. b. c. State the observation obtained at electrode A and B. Write the half equation that occurred at each electrode Determine the processes that happened at each electrode Name the
a. b. Oxidizing agent Reducing agent

d.

e. f.

What is the changes of the oxidation number of copper? What could be observed at the electrodes if the experiment is repeated using 1.0 moldm-3 sodium chloride solution?
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Dry Cells ----- not rechargeable

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Alkaline Cells --- not rechargeable

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Mercury Cell --- not rechargeable

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Nickel-cadmium cells --rechargeable

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Lead-acid accumulator --rechargeable

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Lithium Ion Cell( Li-ion)

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Lithium Polymer Cell (Li-Poly)

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Nickel Metal Hydride Cell (NiMH)

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