# Using the Rate of Adaptation to Guide Training

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Genadijus Sokolovas, Ph.D., Global Sport Technology, Inc www.globsport.org gsokolovas@gmail.com

• The changes in most of adaptation parameters are slow and require several weeks or months of training. • What adaptation parameters may be used to monitor adaptation on daily/weekly basis?

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Every-Day Training Parameters

Speed
(velocity, intensity, power etc.)

Duration of work
(distance, # of repetitions, etc.)
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Training Strategies

• Two main training strategies: • increase of duration of exercise with constant exercise intensity (velocity – strategy 1) • increase of training intensity (velocity – strategy 2) with constant duration of exercise
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Tests with Constant Intensity
• An example of applying constant intensity strategy in swimming: • Initial test set - 4 x 100 m with :20s rest. • Athlete times - 1:10, 1:12, 1:12, 1:10. • Average time - 1:11. This is the goal (or training) time for the next time the set of n x 100 m :20s is used in practice.
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Progression in Swimming Test Sets
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Number of repetition

n x 200 :20s n x 100 :30s n x 50 on 1:30s

10 8 6 4 2 0 1

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3

4

5

6

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8 9 Weeks

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16

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• Rate of Adaptation in constant intensity (velocity) test sets is exponential at the beginning of the season. • It slows down significantly after 16 weeks of training. • It indicates that training with constant intensities has limitation and should not be used longer 7 than 16-18 weeks.

Rate of Adaptation in Tests with Constant Intensity
• Rate of Adaptation depends on many different factors:
– – – – – – Age History of training Level of performances Time of the year and season Event (sprinters vs. distance athletes) Workload volumes in various intensity zones

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Rep2 Day 62 Rep1 Day 20
Days

Rate of Adaptation = (LN Rep2 – LN Rep1)/(Day 62 – Day 20)

Quantifying the Rate of Adaptation (Swimming, Boys)
Age
10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17

Sprint
0.014 0.009 0.004 0.003

Anaerobic
0.016 0.010 0.007 0.004

Mix
0.024 0.023 0.013 0.011

Aerobic
0.036 0.026 0.021 0.027

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• The rate of adaptation depends on the time of the year: it is faster after the summer break and slower in the spring/summer season. • The higher intensity sets, the slower the rate of adaptation. • Rates of adaptation with constant exercise intensity are similar in other endurance sports:
– Aerobic exercise in cycling - 0.027 – Aerobic exercise in rowing – 0.025

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• Younger athletes have higher rate of adaptation than older athletes. • Elite level athletes have slower rate of adaptation than sub-elite level athletes or beginners. • Normally, girls at the same age have slower rate of adaptation than boys. Most likely, it is because of the difference in biological maturation.
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Training Design Based on the Rate of Adaptation
• Athlete’s condition is changing every day. • Ideally, we want to match athlete’s condition with workload volumes and intensities that would elicit the highest rate of adaptation. • How can we design a season with based on the rate of adaptation?

Training Design – Strategy 1
• When training design is based on the rate of adaptation with constant intensity (velocity), we call it Strategy 1. • Progression of workload volumes in various energy zones should match with progression in tests sets with constant intensities (velocities) in the same energy categories.

Practical Application of Strategy I for Swimmers
• Using of swimming sets: • n x 400 m :20-30s, n x 200 m :15-20s - aerobic energy zone • n x 100 m :15-20s, n x 50 m 1min - 1min 30s - mix aerobic-anaerobic energy zone • n x 25 m :40-60s - anaerobic energy zone • long distance swimming with constant velocity
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Sets for Swimmers
• • • • • • • • • • • • Examples of sets for sprinters: n x 12.5 m on 60 sec n x 25 m on 40 sec n x 50 m on 1:30 sec Examples for middle distance swimmers: n x 50 on 1 min n x 75 m :30 sec n x 100 m :30 sec Examples for distance swimmers: n x 100 m :15 sec n x 200 m :20 sec n x 400 m :20 sec. 16

• The main purpose of Strategy 1 is the accumulating of a potential by athletes in different energetic zones. • Accumulating of potential is understood like increase of duration in training sets and workload in the same energy zone.

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Aerobic and Mix Volumes over a Season
Meters Elite Level Swimmers

Weeks

Anaerobic and Sprint Volumes over a Season
Meters Elite Level Swimmers

Weeks

Strategy II (Competition Phase)
• • • • Constant number of repetition in training sets Distance of each repetition is the same Exercise intensity progressively increases Rest interval can be longer to stimulate exercise intensity • Reduce of workload volumes in all energy zones • Exercise intensity (velocity) increases up to 6-7 weeks
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Swimming Velocity in Strategy II
2.2 2.1 2
V, M/S

4 x 100 :20s 6 x 50 on 1:00 6 x 25 :40

1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1 2 3 4 Weeks 5 6 7

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Sets in Strategy II (Swimming)
• • • • • • • • • • • • Examples for swimming sets for sprinters: 8 x 12.5 m on 60 sec 6 x 25 m on 40 sec 4 x 50 m on 1:30 sec Examples for middle distance swimmers: 6 x 50 on 1 min 4 x 75 m :30 sec 4 x 100 m :30 sec Examples for distance swimmers: 8 x 100 m :15 sec 6 x 200 m :20 sec 4 x 400 m :20 sec. 22

Seasonal Plan for Age Group Swimmers
• For younger athletes all periods should be shorter because of faster adaptation and quicker recovery • For 10-12 y. old athletes is recommended: • 2 weeks pre-season • 12 weeks preparation period • 3-4 weeks competition period • 3 seasons in a year

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Seasonal Plan for Senior Swimmers
• For older athletes all periods should be longer because of slower adaptation and slower recovery • For 16-18 y. old athletes is recommended: • 3-4 weeks pre-season • 16 weeks preparation period • 5-8 weeks competition period • 2 seasons in a year

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Seasonal Plan Sprinters vs. Distance Swimmers
• Preparation period (accumulation of working capacity) for sprinters should be shorter, than for distance athletes: • 12-14 weeks vs 16-18 weeks • Competition period (utilization of working capacity to exercise intensity/velocity) for sprinters should be longer, than for distance athletes: • 6-8 weeks vs 3-5 weeks
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E-COACH FOR SWIMMING
Training Design Software

TRAINING DESIGN COMPUTER PROGRAMS IN SWIMMING
• Based on tracking of thousands of athletes the comprehensive models of adaptation were developed. These models were the basis for our training plan designers:
– – – – – – Tra Plan (1988) Weekly Designer (1990) Tra Plan 2 (1992) On-line Training Plan Designer (1998) Seasonal Plan Designer (2005) E-Coach for Swimming (2008)

E-COACH
• Software uses individual data to design and describe the workloads up to 7 energy zones
• In addition, E-Coach designs dryland volumes and the anticipated progression in selected test sets during the season

E-COACH
• E-Coach selects total volumes, intensity, optimal rate of workload progression and reduction during the taper based on:
– – – – – Age Gender Event History of training Individual Parameters (best results from last season, current condition, goal, etc.)

Select an Athlete from Database

Select/ Add a Group of Swimmers

Distance Orientation

Distance Orientation – Relative Endurance
• Sprinters have a higher speed reserve and a lower relative endurance: Swimmer 1 Swimmer 2
Best Time on 100 Best Time on 200 Times in Seconds
Calculation Ratio 200/100

00:54.50 01:57.70 54.5, 117.7 sec
117.7/54.5 2.16

00:55.00 02:02.10 55.0, 122.1 sec
122.1/55.0 2.22

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! QUESTIONS?

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