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# INTRODUCTION TO BIOMECHANICS

## SECTION 4.1: TORQUE & LEVERS

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Practice Problem
Two tacklers are pulling on a player. Player A uses a force of 200 N and player B a force of 100 N acting at an angle of 1350 from Player A. Calculate the resultant of these two vectors.
= 1350 100N 200N

## Solution 1 Cosine Law Step 1 Place the Vectors tip to tail.

= 1350 200N 200N 100N = 1350 Therefore = 1800 1350 = 450

100N

Step 2 Solve the magnitude using the Cosine Law for the resultant (R)
R 100N =45 200N

c2 = a2 + b2 - 2abcos (This is the Cosine Law, where c is our resultant (R)) c2 = 1002 + 2002 2(100)(200)cos45 c =147N
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## Step 3 Solve for the direction using the Cosine Law

147N 200N

100N 45

c2 = a2 + b2 - 2abcos 1002 = 1472 +2002 2(147)(200)(cos ) 10 000 = 21 609 + 40 000 58800(cos ) 10 000 = 61 609 - 58800(cos ) 10 000 61609 = 58800(cos ) -51609 = -58800(cos ) -51609 = cos -58800 cos-1(-51609) = (-58800) = 290

The resultant force of the 2 tacklers is 147N acting at an angle of 290 relative to player force A

## HOW DO WE MAKE ROTATION?

A rigid body or object will rotate about an axis if a force is applied but only if the line of action of the force does not act directly through the axis of rotation If the point of application does not act at the axis then the line of action of the force will not pass through the axis of rotation

Axis of rotation

## OFF CENTRE FORCE = ECCENTRIC FORCE TURNING EFFECT = TORQUE

We are able to open a door, unbalance a teeter totter, rotate the forearm. Due to TORQUES

EXAMPLES

## TORQUE MOMENT MOMENT OF FORCE

The three terms are synonymous "The use of the word 'strength' ... actually represents torque [or moment]. All real-world performance (eg, sprinting, lifting weights, getting out of bed, writing) represents manifestations of torque by the musculoskeletal system" (Lieber & BodineFowler, 1993, p. 852).
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## TORQUE HAS MAGNITUDE & DIRECTION

- Measured in Newton.meters(Nm) Clockwise torque -> Counter clockwise torque -> +

CW

CCW

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HOW DO WE CALCULATE?

## TORQUE = (FORCE)(FORCE ARM) N m

Force arm is a measure of how off-centre the force is = the perpendicular distance from the line of action to the axis of rotation

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FORCE ARMS
Line of action Line of action

F1

F2

FA1

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QUESTIONS?

1. Why does a force directed through an axis of rotation not cause rotation?
2. Why does the orientation of a force acting on a body affect the amount of torque it generates at the axis of rotation within the body?
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## Off-centre force (Torque)

Off centre forces can be used to produce rotation of a segment or object or they can be used to produce rotations of the whole body as in case of a dive

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The

> the magnitude of the force or the length of the force arm the > the magnitude of the rotational effect(TORQUE)

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The moments that gravitational forces produce at L5S1 depend on their moment arms. These depend on: the size of the mass that the woman lifts, or the mass'
distance from the woman's body

She can minimize flexor moments on L5-S1 if she holds the mass so that its center of gravity is close to her body as she lifts it.

The womans lifting posture: She can minimize flexor moments on L5-S1 if she bends her knees to lift rather than lifting with straight knees (Nordin & Frankel, 1989, Fig.10-22).
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## Torque = (F) ( FA)

= (200N) (.25m) = 50Nm CW

3cm FA = 25cm

200N

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## Calculating torque when joints are flexed not 90 degrees

Forearm flexed to 45 degrees Length of forearm to weight = .5m

To calculated FA must use right angle triangle to find length of perpendicular component

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.5m

45

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Fm

.5m
45 45

Given that muscle inserts .04m away from elbow at angle shown

FA

.04m
45 FA

Cos 45 = FA/.04

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ROTATIONAL EQUILIBRIUM

## The sum of the moments (torques) about a point equals zero

M = 0 That is the sum of clockwise moments plus the sum of the counter clockwise moments = 0

Mcw + Mccw = 0

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The Greek symbol for "sigma" specifies a summation of moments. In other words, in rotational equilibrium, the sum of all the moments that act around a joint's axis is equal to zero: M1+M2+M3+ ... Mn=0 For example, all the adductor moments are balanced by equal and opposite abductor moments. Flexor moments are balanced by extensor moments.

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3. A 23 Kg boy sits 1.5 m from the axis of rotation of a seesaw. At what distance from the axis of rotation must a 21kg boy be positioned on the other side of the axis to balance the seesaw?

.
1.5M

21KG

23KG

## W1 = (21)(9.8) = 205.8 N W2 = (23)(9.8) = 225.4N

=0 (225.4)(1.5)=(205.8)(?) ? = 1.6M

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4. How much force must be produced by the biceps brachii with a perpendicular distance of 3cm from the axis of rotation at the elbow to support a weight of 200N at a perpendicular distance of 25 cm for the elbow
M

3cm FA = 25cm

200N

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## HIP ABDUCTOR MUSCLE FORCE PROBLEM

The illustration shows a diagram of a person standing on the right lower extremity. The right hip abductor muscles must contract to counteract the force of gravity and keep the pelvis level. How much force must the right hip abductor muscles generate to keep the pelvis level? Given information is: Body weight = 150 lb., AB = 2", BC = 4", angle BAM = 70 degrees. Solve for the magnitude of M.

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How much force must the right hip abductor muscles generate to keep the pelvis level?

## Let Body weight = 50N Let D1 = 6cm Let D2 = 4cm

D1 D2

The problem can be visualized as two forces (body weight and hip abductor muscle force) and a rigid, horizontal bar or moment arm (the pelvis). The forces are balanced on an axis (the hip joint). These forces and the moment arm comprise a Class I lever system.
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## Torque BW = Torque HAM

Torque due to body weight (cw) = (F) (FA) = (50N) (.06m) 3Nm Torque due to HAM (ccw) = (F) (FA) = (F)(.04)

(F)(.04m)=3Nm F= 75N

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LEVERS

A bar or some other rigid structure hinged at one point and to which force are applied at two other points A lever system consists of : Axis of rotation = fulcrum Motive force = a force which acts to rotate the lever Resistive force = a force which acts to resist the rotation of the lever 33 Motive and resistive force arms

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## MOTIVE AND RESISTIVE FORCES

The most significant motive force causing motion of the total body is gravity. Others include ground reaction forces, wind, water
Resistive forces include eccentric muscle contractions, connective tissue, ligamentsalso contact with any other mass or force

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IN THE BODY:

BONES = LEVER Joints = axis/fulcrum Motive forces for segmental movements include those provided by contractions and recoil of elastic connective tissue Resistance is frequently supplied by the weight of the segment plus any added weight. Gravity will act through the centre of mass of the segment(or centre of mass of segment plus weight). 37

3 CLASSES OF LEVERS
Types of levers are classified according to the relative position of the 1. Fulcrum 2. Motive Force 3. Resistive Force

The function of each class depends on the relative positions and sizes of the force arms

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LEVER FUNCTIONS

1. Magnify the force(possible when the motive force arm is > than the resistive force arm) 2.Increase the speed and range of motion thru which the end of the lever moves(possible when the resistive force arm is > than the motive force arm) 3. Balance equal forces(force arms are equal) 4. Change directions of lever relative to motive force direction
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## 1st class lever

AXIS is between the motive and resistive force Eg. Teeter totter, pliers

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## 1st Class lever

-can serve 1 or more of the 4 functions(versatile). Examples in body:

splenius muscles act to extend the head across the occipital condyles Triceps acts to extend elbow over the head

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Triceps

The triceps brachii is a first-class lever. The force point is the insertion on the olecranon process of the ulna. The resistance point is the c/g of the forearm. The axis is the elbow. Since the R arm is greater than the F arm, the triceps brachii yields a gain in speed and range of the hand with a reduction in force.
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## 2nd Class lever

Resistive component located between the axis and the motive force Eg. Nutcracker, wheelbarrow Has a force advantage Eg: whole body in pushup the resistive force is due to the weight of the body , motive force provided by ground reaction force

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The brachioradialis is a second-class lever. The force point is the insertion on the radial styloid process. The resistance point is the c/g of the forearm. The axis is the elbow. Since the F arm is longer than the R arm, this muscle produces a gain in force with a reduction in speed and range.
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## 3rd Class Lever

The motive force is located between the axis and the resistive force Eg. Shovel Most musculoskeletal levers are 3rd class levers(eg. Biceps) Advantage in Speed and Range of Motion

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Motive force

Resistive force
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Biceps

The biceps brachii are third-class levers. The force point for the biceps brachii is the insertion on radial tuberosity. The resistance point is the c/g of the forearm. The axis is the elbow. Such a lever suffers a reduction in force with a gain in range and speed. Since these muscles are strong enough to overcome the forearm, they result in increased speed and range of the hand.
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TEXT BOOK

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