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Hydraulics is the study and understanding of the behavior of liquids at rest and in motion.
We are concerned with water, and the following characteristics of our application:
How much resistance will this water meet while moving through the system (Friction Loss)? 4.1. How will we overcome this resistance (Pump/Filter Sizing)? . How much water do we have (Pool Capacity)? 2. How fast do we want to move the water (Turnover Rate)? 3.
and.90m.S. Each step is a calculation based on the following example: 5. . filter gauge reads 10 P.I.Following are step – by – step instructions to answer these four questions. With an existing 1 H. (clean). determine the proper size pump or filter for virtually any aftermarket installation. ultimately.50m deep . pump. 0.00 m rectangular pool.00 m by 10.P. to 1.
= 50. we must first calculate the surface area of the pool in square meter: A.00 m 2 Next.14 Area = L x W _____________m 2 (surface area ) Surface Area: 5. X 10.00m. Pool Capacity To determine total gallons.Surface Area Area = (A+B)x L x . multiply the square meter by average depth to determine the approximate cube of the pool: .45 Area = R x R x 3.1.00m.
90m + 1.00m.deep end) (average depth) Average Depth : (0. C. Cube ___________m2 + __________ m = _________ m3 (surface area) (average depth) (cube) Cube : 50. Average Depth ( __________m + _________ m ) † 2 = __________m (depth – shallow end) (depth .171 gallons /m3 = ________ gallons Pool Capacity: 60.20 m.850 gallons .B. = 60.20m. Pool Capacity ________m³ x 264.50m.00m3 D.00m3 x 264.171gals = 15.2 x 1.) † 2 = 1.
880 21.039 13.Some of the more common pool sizes are: Above .630 10.000 In – Ground Size 12’ x 24’ Rectangle 16’ x 32’ Rectangle 18’ x 36’ Rectangle 20’ x 40’ Rectangle *Average Depth: 5 ½ Feet .168 Gallons 11.Ground Size 15 „ Round 18 „ Round 21 „ Round 24‟ Round 12‟ x 24‟ Round 27‟ Round * Average Depth: 4 Feet Gallons 5.565 8.730 33.120 26.299 7.640 17.
However.585 gallons per hour B. The recommended minimum standards for swimming pools are not less than the flow rate to provide one (1) full turnover of the pool every twelve (12) hours .850 gallons † 10 hours = 1.585 gallons per hour † 60 = 26 GPM . to meet reasonably clean. Turnover Rate Once the pool‟s capacity has been calculated. the next step is to determine how fast the water must be circulated in Gallons Per Minute (GPM).Turnover Rate in Gallons Per Hour (GPH) ____________ gallons † _________________ hours = ____________GPH (pool capacity) (desired turnover time) (turnover rate – gallons per hour) Turnover rate : 15. safe water standards.Turnover Rate in Gallons Per Minutes (GPM) ______________ gallons/ hour † 60 minutes = ______________ GPM (turnover rate (turnover rate gallons per hour) gallons per minute) Turnover rate : 1.2. an eight (8) to ten (10) hour rate is quite common: A.
to determine Total Dynamic Head. Therefore. Often. see A on the next page. see C on the next page. Typically. The sum of all the resistance is called Total Dynamic Head. a vacuum reading will not be available: therefore. and is measured in Feet of Head. the table below provides Common Head Loss Factors for today‟s high – efficiency pumps. we are unable to determine the total amount of pipe and fittings in an existing installation… it‟s underground.creates resistance. what follows is a simplified “rule – of – thumb” means of determining Total Dynamic Head.13 feet of water): to the resistance on the pressure side of pump. (measured in inches of mercury with a vacuum gauge : one (1) inch of mercury = 1. see B on the next page. We will need to add the resistance from the vacuum (suction) side of the pump. .3. Friction Loss Everything that the water must pass through within the recirculating system plumbing and equipment . (measured in pounds per square inch – as of head ). or Head Loss.
of water (existing 1 H. of water (vacuum reading) (total resistance – vacuum) Or COMMON HEAD LOSS FACTORS Vacuum (At Pump) – Assumes 2” suction line. Friction Loss ( Pressure) _______________ P.A. X 2. of head ( filter.P.I. of water 2 H.13 ft. not to exceed 40‟ long. one (1) 2” valve and full – rated pumps. of water 1 H. x 2.clean) (total resistance – pressure) Total Resistance (Pressure): 10 P.P.31 = 23 ft.S.S.S. of head/ P.P. Pump – 13. pump) B. = ____________ft. mercury x 1. of water Total Resistance (Vacuum): 9 ft.31 ft.5 ft. of head .5 to 16 ft. Pump – 4. of water 1 ½ H. minimal fittings.I. ¾ H.P.5 to 5. Pump – 10 to 12.I.5 ft.P. Pump – 7 to 9 ft. of water = ____________ ft. Friction Loss (Vacuum) ______________ in.
pressure) (total resistance to flow) Total Resistance to flow : 9 ft. of water + 23 ft. of head = 32 ft.. of head NOTE: the table below provides a maximum flow (GPM) through 1 ½ “ and 2” PVC pipe without exceeding the maximum standards for velocity (ft. suction line (8ft./ sec./ sec).e./ sec.) and return line (10 ft. of head = ________ft. of head (total resistance – vacuum) (total resistance. i.C. Total Dynamic Head ____________ ft.). Pipe Size (PVC) Suction Line Return Line 1½” 2” 2½” 50 GPM 85 GPM 125 GPM 65 GPM 105 GPM 150 GPM . of water + __________ft.
Re Cap We now have all of the information necessary to select the proper size pump and / or filter.850 gallons Turnover rate: 24 GPM Friction loss: 32 ft. enter the final calculations from the previous three sections in the spaces below. of head Pool capacity: 15. To re cap. which will see as our road map to sizing: Pool Capacity ___________ gallons Turnover Rate ___________ gallons per minute (GPM) Friction Loss ____________ ft. of head .
4. SP2600X5 SP2605X 7 SP2607X 10 SP2610X15 SP2615X20 SP2621X25 SP2607 SP2610 SP2615 SP2621 55 67 85 97 116 109 30ft. Total Resistance to Flow (Feet of Head ) 20 ft. Feet of Head (resistance). A pump’s performance data is to provide in GPM (output) vs. Pump Sizing Since the one and only function of the pump is to overcome the total resistance to the flow of the system. A . 45 58 76 90 111 109 40ft. 10 51 69 Model No. 29 47 65 80 99 104 50ft. 27 50 70 84 70ft. Full Rated . See the table below for the specific performance data for a Hayward pumps. Performance Data – Pump Pump Output (GPM) vs. proper selection is of utmost importance. Max Rated Model No. 31 50 67 85 95 60ft.
20 ft.E. larger filters provide longer cycles. 26 vs.75 ft. Filtering Sizing A filter.200 37.2 3. .2 Design Flow Rate 35 GPM 44 GPM 52 GPM 62 GPM 98 GPM Turnover (in Gallons) 8 Hours 16.760 47. 35 GPM turnover rate. 2 2.64 ft.800 Select S180T (minimum) to adequately filter pool (i. One additional factor to consider in filter sizing is the bathers load.4. Also.960 29. See the table below for the specific performance data for a Hayward filters . as well as Turnover Rate ( Pool Capacity in Gallons).120 24. 000 gallons in 10 hours). has a Design Flow Rate (in Gallons Per Minute – GPM). Model Number S180T S210T S220T S244T S310T Effective Filtration Area 1. Busier pools require larger filters. be it D.000 26.200 58. B.e. 2 2. will handle pools up to 21.2 4. sand or cartridge.400 31. 800 21. reducing the everyday maintenance required by the consumer during the pool season.040 10 Hours 21.14 ft.91 ft.
GPM vs. .If you increase or decrease your GPM for any reason. It is important to remember that your Turnover Rate calculation is keyed directly to a specific Total Dynamic Head calculation (i. based upon your calculations. Feet of Head).Summary Using the information in the re-cap section above. choose the desired pump and / or filter model .your resistance will increase or decrease respectively.e . then select the proper size component to meet the needs of the installation.
and to help produce clear. Each method of filtration is explained below. Much of the material suspended in the water. It is these materials that must be removed if a pool or spa is to be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition.).The important of proper swimming pool or spa filtration cannot be overstated. derived from the plants and animal sources which provides food for bacteria and algae. Cartridge and Diatomaceous Earth (D. The three most popular types of filtration currently in use in residential pools and spas are High–Rate Sand. Clear water not only looks beautiful.E. to remove insoluble matter such as dirt and algae. . but it is also necessary for health and safety reasons. The reasons for filtration. sparkling water are obvious.
Sand filters share two things in common: 1. and then. allowing filtration to take place. a clean sand bed will remove larger particles. 2. dirt is driven through the sand bed and trapped in the minute spaces between the particles of sand. They all have some sort of lateral or underdrain with slots to hold back sand while allowing clean. Initially . as the bed starts to load up.The oldest and most popular method of filtration is sand.55mm (also known as pool – grade #20 silica sand). water always flows from top to bottom. When in the filtration mode . They operate on the basis of “depth” filtration.45 to . normally . High – rate sand filters use a special filter sand. filtered water to pass through. it will remove finer particles. . because it has sharp edges that serve to separate particles.
. The cartridge element can be removed and cleaned by pressure washing inside and out using a garden hose. dirt is screened out at the surface of the cartridge element. the element will trap larger particles. but only recently has begun to enjoy rapid growth and acceptance. with finer particles being filtered out as the pores of the element become clogged by the larger debris. When clean. When water passes through a cartridge filter.Cartridge filtration has been available for a relatively long time.
E powder. when a D. To restore filtration.E.E filtration to be the finest. Clear water can pass through these openings. looks like a tiny sponges. to the “waste” line or regenerating and draining. a fresh “charge” of D. filters have internal elements that become coated with D. Diatomaceous earth is a porous powder with microscopic openings. that when magnified. filter becomes dirty.E powder is added to the . as small as one to three microns.E. are trapped the first pass through the media. All D. algae and some forms of bacteria from the water.E. It is this “filter cake” that strains dirt. because it is capable of removing smaller particles than either sand or cartridge. Similar to sand filters. dust. it is cleaned either by backwashing the clogged D.Many pool professionals consider D. but particles.
375 2 Approximate Filtration Range ( Microns) 20 to 40 10 to 20 1 to 3 High Rate Sand Cartridge Diatomaceous Earth .2 ) 15 .Filtration Method Suggested Filtration Rate Residential ( GPM/ ft. 2) 20 1 2 Commercial (GPM / ft.
Most pool owner complaints are directly related to water chemistry or improper sizing of filters and pumps rather than equipment failures. it is important to remember that filtration alone does not keep water looking its best. Proper water chemistry must also be maintained for safe. .Whatever method of filtration is selected. clean water.
6 – 1. but not in excessive amounts which will irritate bathers. CHLORINE : Chlorine is used as disinfectant or water purifier.1.0 readings) to ensure that there is sufficient amount to adequately disinfect the water. Apply chlorine preferably in the evening by hand broadcasting it direct into the water. Chlorine level must be maintained at reasonable limits (0. .
6 for comfortable swimming. .2 – 7. Apply acid one pint at a time by directly pouring it around the pool. algae prosper and the pool gives off an unpleasant chlorine odor.2. Ph – Muriatic Acid: Too much acid (low pH) causes irritation to the eyes and mucous membrane. The pH readings must be between 7.
6 – 1.0 and pH at 7. regular chlorine dosages to maintain chlorine readings at 0. .6 is all that is required to prevent the spread of algae and thus keep the pool sanitary and attractive.In short.2 – 7.
Apply chemicals in the evening and run the filter at least 4 to 6 hours daily. clean the pool floor and brush sides thoroughly every morning. That’s all there is to it. Vacuum. .WHAT TO DO: Maintenance is a matter of good housekeeping.
000.00 Amount of Chlorine 3 – 4 oz.000. daily 3 5 6 Amount of Acid (pH) pints or 1 ½ qts. daily 6 – 8 oz.Pool Gallonage 15.00 20.000. that the above table is only a guide. daily 4 – 6 oz. pints or 2 ½ qts. . 9 – 10 pints or 5 qts.000.000. 7 – 8 pints or 4 35.00 7 – 9 oz. So always use the test-kit before adding the chemicals.00 30. Your water test – kit will tell you when to put chlorine or acid to the pool. daily 8 – 10 oz.00 40.000. Remember. qts. pints or 3 qts. daily 8 pints = 4 quartz = 1 gallon 8 – 9 pints or 4 ½ qts. daily 5 – 7 oz.00 25.
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