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WHAT IS A TURBINE?

Gas turbine is the internal combustion engines

involving heat energy and mechanical energy has the sole parameters. The main function is to convert the chemical energy of a liquid fuel into mechanical energy by internal combustion. Gaseous products of a fuel are expanded through the turbine. The gas turbine is the power developing unit among various means of producing mechanical power due to its exceptional reliability, freedom from vibration and ability to large power. Its used in various fields viz (majorly in) aircrafts, trains, ships tank and power plants. A gas turbine can accelerate air to create thrust (aero engines) or drive generators to make electricity, or turn

Brayton Cycle
Unlike diesels, operate on STEADY-FLOW cycle Open cycle, unheated engine
1-2: Compression 2-3: Combustion 3-4: Expansion through Turbine and Exhaust Nozzle (4-1: Atmospheric Pressure)

Brayton Cycle

Basic Components

Basic Components
Compressor It Draws air in & compresses it Supplies high pressure air for combustion process

Basic Components
Combustion Chamber
Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air
Where air & fuel are mixed, ignited, and burned Spark plugs used to ignite fuel

Basic Components
Turbine
Hot gases converted to work Can drive compressor & external load

Compressor
Supplies high pressure air for combustion process Compressor types
Radial/centrifugal flow compressor Axial flow compressor

Compressor
Radial/centrifugal flow
Adv: simple design, good for low compression ratios (5:1) Disadv: Difficult to stage, less efficient

Axial flow
Good for high compression ratios (20:1) Most commonly used

Compressor
Controlling Load on Compressor
To ensure maximum efficiency and allow for flexibility, compressor can be split into HP & LP sections Vane control: inlet vanes/nozzle angles can be varied to control air flow

Compressor Stall
Interruption of air flow due to turbulence

Use of Compressed Air


Primary Air (30%)
Passes directly to combustor for combustion process

Secondary Air (65%)


Passes through holes in perforated inner shell & mixes with combustion gases
More efficient secondary systems (cooling, sealing)

Film Cooling Air (5%)


Insulates/cools turbine blades

Combustion Chambers
Types
Can: for small, centrifugal compressors Annular: for larger, axial compressors (LM 2500) Can-annular: rarely used

The Combustor

The Turbine

Turbines
Consists of one or more stages designed to develop rotational energy

Single shaft
Power coupling on same shaft as turbine Same shaft drives rotor of compressor and power components

Blade Cooling

Gas Turbine Accessory Systems


Starting System
To get compressor initially rotated, HP air used (can use electrical also) Once at certain RPM, fuel injected and spark ignited

Power Transmission System


Reduction gears used to transfer torque With split shaft, turbines can run @ different speeds

Advantages
Gas turbines when compared to other engines type have very good power to weight ratio. Gas turbine engines are compact in size. Excess heat generated by engines can be used for other applications. For example: Preheating of air before it enters the combustion chamber. Gas turbines have good thermal efficiency and therefore good fuel efficiency when in prolonged use under a constant load.

Disadvantages
Gas turbines are very expensive. The high engine speed which turbines run at causes problems when designing and manufacturing turbine parts .The harsh conditions within a gas turbine mean that the materials used and the design must be thought through. At low engine speed (idling) are when the load fluctuates the efficiency of gas turbines is very low. The very hot exhaust gases make gas turbines very unsuitable for many uses.

Gas Turbine Applications