By Abu George Philip

Topics for Discussion • Introduction • Definition and Meaning • History • Characteristics • Objectives • The OD Process • Conclusion .

. organisational climate . etc but also in human values . • Change occurs not only in technology . etc. marketing . social system .culture . • OD has emerged as the modern approach to manage these changes and human resource development.Introduction • Change is the “law of nature”.attitudes .It is necessary for the survival and growth of an organisation. • Management has to meet these changes effectively through a systematic and planned change effort.

Beach defined OD as”a complex educational strategy designed to increase organisational effectiveness and wealth through planned interventionby a consultant using theory and techniques of applied behavioural service”. . • Dale S.values and structure of organisations so that they can better adapt to new and challenges”.Definition and Meaning • Warren G.Bennis defines OD as ” a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs.attitudes.

. • OD is not a separate discipline but it heavily draws from other disciplines like psychology. • OD is also concerned with improving organisational climate and culture. • OD is concerned with people for increasing organisation effectiveness.sociology. • OD is based upon theory and research.etc.anthropology.the primary objectiveis to change the nature of total organistaion.• OD is a broader concept and includes management development and training as its sub-systems.

measuring results. . • Douglas McGregor also served as a resource person for setting up OD process(in Union Carbide Corporation. taking action . • He experimented with a 3-step process of planning.History • Kurt Lewin played key role in the evolution of OD.1962).

OD uses change agents who stimulate and co-ordinate change within a group. OD utilises group processes like group discussions . OD is concerned with problem solving approach rather than merely discussing them. intergroup conflicts . OD is concerned with the interaction and interrelation among its various sub-systems. OD emphasises learning by experience.Characteristics of OD OD focusses on the whole organisation to assure that all it parts are well co-ordinated. collaboration and cooperation .

(contd. OD is research based as most of its interventions are based on research findings.. .) OD provides feedback data and information to the participants. OD is a long-term approach to improve the overall organisational effectiveness.

To increase commitment . .Objectives To increase openness of communication among people. To encourage people (who are close to the point of actual action) to make decisions regarding their issues through collaborative efforts. To involve the in the process of analysis and implementation. To encourage the confrontation regarding organisational problems with a view to arrive at effective decisions. self-direction and self-control.

. To increase the level of trust and support among employees.) To enhance personal enthusiasm and satisfaction levels. To increase the level of individual and group responsibility in planning and execution.(contd. To develop strategic solutions to problems with higher frequency..

 These consultants adopt various methods which includes • Interviews • Questionnaires • Direct Observation • Analysis of documents  Data CollectionSurvey Method is used to collect data and information for determining organisational climate. .  Data Feedback and Confrontation- Data collected are analysed and reviewed by various work groups formed for this purpose inorder to meditate in the areas of disagreement of ideas or opinions and to establish priorities.  Finding out professional and competent people to plan and execute OD activities.The OD process  Initial Diagnosis Recognising the inadequacies within an organisation.

Selection and Design of Interventions- Interventions are planned activities that are introduced into system to accomplish desired changes and improvements. At this particular stage suitable intervention are to be selected and designed. Feedback of data to participants . written exercises . Interventions may take the form of Workshops . onthe-job activities . etc. . redesign of control systems . Group discussions . Implementation of Intervention- Selected intervention is implemented .

. Intergroup DevelopmentIt consists of intergroup meetings . find out their utility .interaction . by arranging joint meetings with managers and sub-ordinates. etc after the formation of groups. develop programmes further to correct the deviations.Action Planning and problem solving- Groups prepare recommendations and specific action planning to solve the specific and identified problems by using data collected. Team BuildingConsultants encourage the employees throughout the process to form groups and teams by explaining the advantages of teams in OD process . Evaluation and Follow-up – Organisation evaluates the OD process .

interpersonal relations . Group performance will be enhanced much as OD emphasis on group activity. cooperation . openness.etc Employees with these changing behavioural dimensions feel happy and have a sense of satisfaction about the job and company.Conclusion OD process contribute to increase job performance of individual employees .Thus resulting in self change of the employees. Communication skill . . It encourage Team work . It enables people to understand about themselves and others in the group. groups and organisation.

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