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Fluid Dynamic Characterization of Turbo-machinery

P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department

Development of Measures for Solid Fluid Interactions!!!

Analogy Between Muscle & Turbo-machine

Working fluid Muscle Solid structure of turbo-machine (rotor) Bone.

MEL346 : Syllabus

Introduction: turbomachinery / history / types / classification. Euler equation for turbomachines. Thermodynamics and fluid mechanics of turbomachinery Mass, momentum and energy. Radial equilibrium theory and design of blades for a turbomachine. Design of Hydraulic turbines. Axial flow turbines and compressors: theory and design Centrifugal compressors & Pumps Wind Turbines Micro Turbines

Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery : S.L. Dixon. Principles of Turbomachinery: R.K. TURTON. Handbook of Turbomachineryedited by Earl Logan, Jr. & Ramendra Roy. The Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines David G Wilson & T Korakianitis. Principles of Turbomachinery in Air Breathing Engines E A Baskharone. Steam Turbines for Modern Fossil-Fuel Power Plants; Alexander S Leyzerovich.

Attendance Policy
Below 80% -- one grade less. Below 70% -- Two grades less. Below 60% -- F Grade.

Fluid Dynamics of A Turbomachine

The Ancient Design : Undershot Water Wheel : 4000BC

Various Types of Modern Turbomachine



Why So Many?

Why so many different types of either pump (compressor) or turbine are in use ? Is it due to (almost) infinite range of service requirements? As a fact, for a given set of operating/resource requirements , there should be only one type of pump or turbine which is best suited to provide best/optimum performance.

Classification of Turbo-machines

Two main categories of turbo-machine are identified: Firstly, those which absorb power to increase the fluid pressure or head (fans, compressors and pumps); Secondly, those that produce power by expanding fluid to a lower pressure or head (hydraulic, steam and gas turbines).

Classification : Flow Path

Classification : Flow Path

Turbomachines are further categorised according to the nature of the flow path through the passages of the rotor. When the path of the through-flow is wholly or mainly parallel to the axis of rotation, the device is termed an axial flow turbomachine. When the path of the through-flow is wholly or mainly in a plane perpendicular to the rotation axis, the device is termed a radial flow turbomachine. Mixed flow turbomachines are widely used. The term mixed flow refers to the direction of the throughflow at rotor outlet when both radial and axial velocity components are present in significant amounts.

Solid Fluid Interaction Level Open flow

No casing or enclosure for the rotating device

Propeller is an open flow power consuming device. Windmill is an open flow power generating device.

Enclosed or encased flow devices

Further Classification of Turbomachines

Compressibility of the fluid Incompressible The density is constant through the entire flow process; liquid pumps. Compressible; Gas flows: compressors.

Impulse or reaction machines

Impulse: pressure changes are absent in the flow through the rotor. In an impulse machine, all the pressure change take place in nozzles
Reaction: pressure changes in rotor are present.

Any Unified Theory?

Developed by the Father of Turbo-machines

The Mathematics of Turbo-machinery

Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) was arguably the greatest mathematician of the eighteenth century. One of the most prolific writer of all time; his publication list of 886 papers and books fill about 90 volumes. Remarkably, much of this output dates from the last two decades of his life, when he was totally blind. Euler's prolific output caused a tremendous problem of backlog: the St. Petersburg Academy continued publishing his work posthumously for more than 30 years.

Theoretical and Rigorous Work of French

Bernoulli and Leonhard Euler. 1750:Euler offered a memoir containing analysis and equations for hydraulic turbines. 1754: An idealized theoretical application of Newtons Law to centrifugal impellers. Known as Euler Equation. Did much to help the development of hydraulic machinery. 1767: Relation between Torque and Change in moment of momentum of the fluid as it passed through the machine.

Applications of Eulers Equation

Euler equation applies to all kinds of turbomachines. Wind turbines ---- Pumps --- Gas turbines. Axial flow machines to Radial flow to Mixed flow. Energy extraction machines Energy consuming machines. For a turbine the value of Equation is negative. For pumps, fans, blowers and compressors it is positive.

The Superiority of Vector Parameters

V V Vr i j Vz k

Eulers Work Equation

V V Vr i j Vz k
Euler Theory:
Torque exerted by flow on blade row = shaft output torque = Rate of change of Angular momentum of fluid = t

Define, L as Angular momentum

Angular momentum is moment of linear momentum of angular velocity, V For a steady flow through a turbomachine:

Inlet rate of angular momentum :

Exit rate of angular momentum at exit:

Change in Rate of angular momentum: