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# OBJECTIVES

At the end of this subject, the participants will have a general understanding of the following;

## 2.Different types of aircraft engines

3.The basic principles involve in the operation of powerplants 4.The different components of an aircraft engine and its operation 5.The different systems of an aircraft engine

OUTLINE
Introduction Engine Classification Scientific Principles Components of a Gas Turbine Engine Engine Systems Problem Solving

Background
Aircraft Powerplant 20%
Thermodynamics Internal Combustion Engine
Reciprocating Engine Jet Engines
ATHODYD Rocket Gas Turbine Engine

INTRODUCTION

## History of jet engines

1629 - Giovanni Branca developed a stamping mill, that used jets of steam to rotate a turbine that then, rotated to operate machinery. 1678 - Ferdinand Verbiest built a model carriage that used a steam jet for power. 1687 - Sir Issac Newton announces the three laws of motion. These form the basis for modern propulsion theory.
Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction

## History of jet engines

1791 - John Barber received the first patent for a basic turbine engine. His design was planned to use as a method of propelling the 'horseless carriage'. The turbine was designed with a chain-driven, reciprocating type of compressor. It has a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine. 1872 - Dr. F. Stolze designed the first true gas turbine engine. His engine used a multistage turbine section and a flow compressor. This engine never ran under its own power. 1897 - Sir Charles Parson patented a steam turbine was used to power a ship. 1914 - Charles Curtis filed the first application for a gas turbine engine.

## History of jet engines

1918 - General Electric company started a gas turbine division. Dr. Stanford A. Moss developed the GE turbosupercharger engine during W.W.I. It used hot exhaust gasses from a reciprocating engine to drive a turbine wheel that in turn drove a centrifugal compressor used for supercharging. 1920 - Dr. A. A. Griffith developed a theory of turbine design based on gas flow past airfoils rather than through passages. 1930 - Sir Frank Whittle in England patented a design for a gas turbine for jet propulsion. The first successful use of this engine was in April, 1937. His early work on the theory of gas propulsion was based on the contributions of most of the earlier pioneers of this field. The specifications of the first jet engine were: Airflow = 25 pounds/sec
Fuel Consumption = 200/gal/h or 1300 lb/h Thrust = 1000 lb Specific Fuel consumption = 1300/1000 = 1.3 lb/lb/h

## History of jet engines

1936 - At the same time as Frank Whittle was working in Great Britain, Hans von Ohain and Max Hahn, students in Germany developed and patented their own engine design. 1939 (August) - The aircraft company Ernst Heinkel Aircraft flew the first flight of a gas turbine jet, the HE178. 1941 - Sir Frank Whittle designed the first successful turbojet airplane, the Gloster Meteor, flown over Great Britain. Whittle improved his jet engine during the war, and in 1942 he shipped an engine prototype to General Electric in the United States. America's first jet plane was built the following year. 1942 - Dr. Franz Anslem developed the axial-flow turbojet, Junkers Jumo 004, used in the Messerschmitt

## Comparison between Jet engines and Reciprocating engines

The main function of any airplane propulsion system is to provide a force to overcome the aircraft drag, this force is called thrust. Both propeller driven aircraft and jet engines derive their thrust from accelerating a stream of air - the main difference between the two is the amount of air accelerated. A propeller accelerates a large volume of air by a small amount, whereas a jet engine accelerates a small volume of air by a large amount.

## Comparison between Jet engines and Reciprocating engines

Powerplant an aircraft engine and its component parts, and other parts necessary to properly install such engine in an aircraft, but not the propeller (if used). Aircraft engine an engine used or intended to be used for propulsion of aircraft and includes all parts, appurtenances and accessories thereof, other than propellers.

DEFINITIONS

ENGINE CLASSIFICATIONS
Heat Engines Engines that convert heat energy to mechanical energy TYPES OF COMBUSTION ENGINES (HEAT ENGINES) 1. External Combustion Engine 2. Internal Combustion Engine TYPES OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 1. Reciprocating Engines (RE) 2. Jet Engines Reaction Engines Engines that generates thrust by its reaction to the flow in the opposite direction of a mass of air

## TYPES OF JET ENGINES

ATHODYD = Aero-Thermodynamic Ducts Rockets Gas Turbine Engines

## TYPES OF JET ENGINES

Ramjet a jet engine in which fuel is burned in a duct with air compressed by the forward motion of the aircraft .

## TYPES OF JET ENGINES

Pulsejet a ramjet engine in which air, admitted through movable vanes, mixes with fuel in the combustion chamber. The resulting explosion forces the vanes shut, causing a pulsating thrust.

## TYPES OF JET ENGINES

Rocket an engine that carries both fuel and oxidizer that it burns in a combustion chamber, producing thrust by expelling the expanding hot gases through a nozzle.

## TYPES OF JET ENGINES

Gas Turbine Engine an internal-combustion engine in which a turbine is turned by hot gases consisting of compressed air and the products of the fuels combustion.

Scientific Principles
Newtons Laws of Motion Bernoullis Principle Boyles Law Brayton Cycle

## JET PROPULSION PRINCIPLE

Newtons First Law of Motion A body will remain at rest unless a force acts on it.

THRUST
What is Thrust?
It is the force that pushes you deep into your seat as you speed down the runway for takeoff. It is the force that propels an airplane forward through the air.

## JET PROPULSION PRINCIPLE

How is THRUST created? Balanced forces on an object prevent movement. If forces on an object are the same in all directions the object will not move.

## JET PROPULSION PRINCIPLE

Unbalanced forces cause an object to move. During operation, a jet engine pushes gases out of the exhaust nozzle. This makes an unbalanced force towards the front of the engine. Unbalanced forces cause jet engines to make thrust.

## JET PROPULSION PRINCIPLE

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion states "Force equals mass accelerated (F = ma)." When a jet engine accelerates air (mass), it makes thrust (force). When a jet engine moves a small quantity of air, it makes a small quantity of thrust. When it moves a large quantity of air, it makes a large quantity of thrust.

## JET PROPULSION PRINCIPLE

Newton's 3rd Law of Motion states "Every action has an equal and opposite reaction." The ACTION is the jet exhaust going through the jet engine. The REACTION is the jet engines then moves forward.

## JET PROPULSION PRINCIPLE

Jet engine thrust can be increased in two ways: increase the speed of exhaust gases.

## increase the quantity of exhaust gases.

Increased engine thrust will make an aircraft fly faster or with more weight.

## JET PROPULSION PRINCIPLE

Bernoullis Principle Pressure is inversely proportional to velocity

## JET PROPULSION PRINCIPLE

Boyles Law Pressure and Volume are inversely proportional as long as temperature is kept constant

Brayton Cycle

## STANDARD DAY CONDITIONS

Standard day conditions are used by engineers when calculating thrust rating. As air temperature increases, engine output decreases. As air temperature decreases, engine output increases. As air density increases, engine output increases. As air density decreases, engine output decreases.

## TYPES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES (GTE)

Turbojet Turboshaft Turboprop Turbofan

## TYPES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES (GTE)

TURBOJET a gas turbine engine in which the turbine extracts only the power required to drive the compressor and accessories necessary for continuous operation. The high velocity imparted to the exhaust gases by the exhaust nozzle provides the thrust for propulsion.

## TYPES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES (GTE)

TURBOSHAFT A gas turbine engine equipped with an output shaft driven by the turbine to drive a rotor, e.g., the main rotor of a helicopter.

## TYPES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES (GTE)

TURBOPROP a turboshaft engine in which the output shaft drives a propeller.

## TYPES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES (GTE)

TURBOFAN a gas turbine engine that drives a shrouded fan and causes a portion of the fan airflow to bypass the gas turbine.

## TYPES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES (GTE)

BASIC COMPONENTS
Inlet Compressor Combustor Turbine Exhaust Nozzle Accessories

BASIC COMPONENTS
Division as Sections (according to function) Division as Modules (according to method of attachment)

INLET
The air inlet is designed to conduct incoming ram air to the compressor with minimal energy loss resulting from drag or ram pressure loss. The amount of air passing through the engine is dependent upon three factors: (1.) (2.) (3.) The compressor speed (rpm) The forward speed of the aircraft The density of ambient (surrounding) air.

COMPRESSORS
The compressor section's primary function is to supply air in sufficient quantity to satisfy the requirements of the combustion burners. A secondary function of the compressor is to supply bleed air for various purposes in the engine and aircraft.

Airconditioning/Pressurization

COMPRESSORS
Wing Anti-Icing/Nacelle Anti-Icing Potable Water Tank Pressurization Hydraulic Tank Pressurization

## Cargo Compartment Heating

Pneumatic Drive Units

Engine Starting
Thrust Reverser Center Drive Unit

TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
Centrifugal Flow Compressors

Impeller
Diffuser Compressor Manifold

TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
Axial Flow Compressors

## Axial Flow Compressor Velocity & Pressure Distribution

COMBUSTOR
The combustion section houses the combustion process which raises the temperature of the air passing through the engine. The combustion process releases energy contained in the air-fuel mixture. The major part of the released energy is required at the turbine to drive the compressor.

COMBUSTOR
The remaining energy creates the reaction or propulsion and passes out the rear of the engine in the form of a high-velocity jet. All combustion chambers contain the same basic elements: (1.) (2.) A casing. A perforated inner liner.

(3.)
(4.)

## A fuel injection system.

Some means for initial ignition.

TYPES OF COMBUSTOR

TYPES OF COMBUSTOR

TYPES OF COMBUSTOR

TURBINES
The turbine transforms a portion of the kinetic (velocity) enemy of the exhaust gases into mechanical energy to drive the compressor and accessories. The turbine assembly consists of two basic elements the stator and the rotor, as does the compressor unit.

TURBINES

TYPES OF TURBINES

TYPES OF TURBINES

METHODS OF COOLING

EXHAUST SECTION
The exhaust section direct the flow of hot gases rearward in such a manner as to prevent turbulence and at the same time impart a high final or exit velocity to the gases.

EXHAUST SECTION

ACCESSORIES SECTION
The primary function is to provide space for mounting the accessories necessary for the operation and control of the engine. Generally, it also includes accessories concerned with the aircraft such as electric generators and fluid power pumps.

The power for both the engine and aircraft accessories is extracted through a system of gearboxes and shafts.

ACCESSORIES SECTION

GEARBOX ASSEMBLIES
Inlet Gearbox

Horizontal Driveshaft Accessory Gearbox

Transfer Gearbox

## Airbus A340 Accessory Drive Section

Engine Systems
Fuel System Lubrication System Air System
Compressor Control System Clearance Control System Cooling System

## Ignition System Starting System

Engine Systems
Thrust Reverser System Engine Control System Engine Indication System

## Engine Fuel Systems

Aircraft Fuel System
Fuel Shut-off Valve

Fuel Filter
Combustor
(Fuel Nozzles &2 Igniter plugs)

Fuel Manifold

AGB

Fuel Pump

OIL SYSTEM
Heat Exchanger

Oil Tank

Oil Filter

## Supply Scavenge Pump Pump

AGB
Oil Filter Chip Detector

OIL SUMPS
Fwd Oil Sump

## COMPRESSOR CONTROL SYSTEM

Electronic Controller Unit

electrical signal
Hydromechanical Mechanical Unit

## servo fuel servo fuel

Variable Bleed Valves
Variable Inlet Guide Vanes & Stator Vanes

Combustor

## High Pressure Compressor

Turbine (HPT/LPT)

Exhaust

## ACTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEM

During Engine Operation, especially during transients, casing-to-rotor clearances can change rapidly.

Stator & rotor thermal responses are not the same Rotors tend to be heavier than stators, and require longer times to heat and to cool them.

## ACTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEM

Stators are usually much more exposed to heating and cooling airflows than are rotors.

To maintain close clearances during cruise, important for good cruise performance, efficiency and SFC, and to keep transient clearances satisfactory for good response, careful rotor-stator coordination has to be done.

Case Clearance

## ACTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEM

ECU

Servo Fuel
LPTCC Valve

Fan Air

HPTCC Valve

IP HMU
LPC Discharge

HP
HPTCC Air Impingement Manifold

IP

RACC Valve

Servo Fuel

IGNITION SYSTEM
ECU

115VAC

## Aircraft Electrical System

Starting/Ignition SystemControl

ENGINE
Input Circuit Ignition Exciter Box Combustio n Chamber

Storage Circuit

Discharge Circuit

15-20KV

2 Igniter Plugs

## ENGINE STARTING SYSTEM

Aircraft Pneumatic System Air Source
(APU, Ground Cart, Running Engine)

Starting/Ignition SystemControl

Start Valve

ECU

IGB

## Igniter Plug High Pressure Rotor (HPC/HPT)

Air Starter Motor

AGB

TGB

## THRUST REVERSER SYSTEM

Thrust reverser supply the aircraft with reverser thrust, on the ground, to decrease the distance necessary to safely stop the aircraft.

## TYPES OF THRUST REVERSERS

Translating Cowl Type

Clam Shell Type

## TYPES OF THRUST REVERSERS

Turboprop Reverse Pitch

FEEDBACK SYSTEM

THE END