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Measuring Results and Behaviors: Overview

Measuring Results Measuring Behaviors

Measuring Results: Overview


Key Accountabilities Expected Objectives Performance Standards

Key questions

Where should each individual focus efforts? What are the expected objectives? How do we know how well the results were achieved?

Accountabilities
Broad areas of a job for which employee is responsible for producing results

Objectives
Statements of important and measurable outcomes

Performance Standards

Yardstick used to evaluate how well employees have achieved objectives

Determining Accountabilities

Collect information about job (Job Description) Determine importance of task or cluster of tasks
% of employees time spent performing task Impact on units mission if performed inadequately Consequences of error

Determining Objectives

Purpose: to identify
Outcomes

Limited number Highly important dramatic impact on overall organization success

When achieved

10 Characteristics of Good Objectives


1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

Specific and Clear Challenging Agreed Upon Significant Prioritized

10 Characteristics of Good Objectives


(continued)
6.
7. 8. 9. 10.

Bound by Time Achievable Fully Communicated Flexible Limited in Number

Determining Performance Standards


Standards refer to aspects of performance objectives, such as:

Quality
How well the objective is achieved

Quantity
How much, how many, how often, at what cost

Time
Due dates, schedule, cycle times, how quickly

Standards must include:


A verb The desired result A due date Some type of indicator


Quality and/or Quantity Ex.: reduce overtime from 150 hrs/mnth to 50 hrs/mnth by Dec 1, 2012, at a cost not to exceed $12000

Good Performance Standards: 6 Characteristics


1.
2.

3.
4. 5. 6.

Related to Position Concrete, Specific, Measurable Practical to Measure Meaningful Realistic and Achievable Reviewed Regularly

Measuring Behaviors: Overview


Identify competencies Identify indicators Choose measurement system

Identify Competencies
Measurable clusters of KSAs
Knowledges Skills Abilities

That are critical in determining how results will be achieved

Types of Competencies

Differentiating
Distinguish between superior and average performance

Threshold
Needed to perform to minimum standard

Identify Indicators
Observable behaviors Used to measure extent to which competencies are present or not

Necessary Components for Describing Competencies

Definition Description of specific behaviors


When competency demonstrated When competency not demonstrated

Suggestions for developing the competency

Choose Measurement System

Comparative system
Compares employees with each other

Absolute system
Compares employees with prespecified performance standard

Comparative Systems

Simple rank order Alternation rank order Paired comparisons Forced distribution

Advantages of Comparative Systems

Easy to explain Straightforward Better control for biases and errors found in absolute systems
Leniency Severity Central tendency

Disadvantages of Comparative Systems

Rankings may not be specific enough for


Useful feedback Protection from legal challenge

No information on relative distance between employees Specific issues with forced distribution method

Absolute Systems

Essays Behavior checklists Critical incidents Graphic rating scales

Quick Review

Measuring Results
Identify accountabilities Set objectives Determine standards of performance

Measuring Behaviors
Identify competencies Identify indicators Choose measurement system