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Scenario of developing countries after 2nd world war
Planning initiative in 1950 Variations in Objectives, Methodologies and

Operational Strategies Planning started while considering:

Changing old colonial System Poverty

Means of Coordinating Government Policies

Planning agencies/institutions in Asian Countries

Central Planning Agency Indonesia
Planning Commission Pakistan & India Economic Planning Agency Japan

Eco Planning Board Korea

National Development Planning Committee Malaysia National Eco Development Board Thailand Commonalities: All were responsible for coordinating

government policies

Five Years Planning

India started five year planning (1951-56)
2nd plan 1956-61 through integrated approach Indonesia stated five years planning 1956 but came up

with eight year plan (1961-69). Was terminated in 1966 and again 5 years planning was introduced Pakistan Federal Constitution and started 5 years planning (1955) Planning Commission (high powered body) started 1964

Role of international agencies in evolution of educational Planning in Asia

IIEP (Regional Plan for Primary Education)
IIEP The needs of Asia in Primary education (20 years

plan) also known as Karachi plan IIEP provided technical assistant to Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Indonesia and Bangladesh

Educational Plan as a part of 5 years plan
Educational plan developed separately but within the

guidelines an polices determined in overall national development plan

Educational Planning, 1950

Focusing self sustaining System
Educational Opportunities Transformation of systems into National System of

Education It varied from country to country

Plan and Policies

1955-60 Educational Conference recommendations
1960-65 Sharif commission recommendations 1965-70 Commission on Students Problems 1972 Bureau of educational planning 1972 Education council at various levels 1975-80

Education Policy, 1979 1980-85 Education Policy, 1979 1985-90..contd

General Problems
Excessive quantitative
Over centralization Implementation weakness Evaluation

Approaches to Planning
Reactive >>
Inactive>>> Preactive>> Proactive>>

Past Oriented Present Oriented Predicting Future Creating Future

Chronology of Planning Machinery

Development Board established in 1948 in the EAD Colombo Plan (Six Year Plan) 1951-57 Planning Board set up in 1953. First 5 year plan prepared for 1955-60 National Planning Board established in 1957 Planning Commission setup under the Chairmanship of

President in 1959 Second five year plan prepared for 1960-65 followed by the third five year plan for 1965-70 Fourth Five Year Plan (1970-75) prepared but remained dormant due to separation of East Pakistan 1970-77 non plan period : Development on basis of Annual Plans Fifth Five Year Plan 1978-83

Sixth Five Year Plan 1983-88 Seventh Five Year Plan 1988-93 Eighth Five Year Plan 1993-98 Ninth Five Year Plan (halted due to changed in government) 10 Years Perspective Development Plan 2001-11 14. MTDF 2005-10 July, 2005. 15. Planning Commission restructured on 20 April 2006 with P.M. as Chairman. Vision 2030 launched in August,


What is planning
Planning is the process of deciding the objectives

or goals of the organization and to meet them

through suitable strategies

(What, who, how, when, when)


Pre-planning stage
Creation of suitable organization Structural reorganization of administrative

Machinery to participate in planning

Estab: of planning procedure Defining objectives at various levels


Planning stage

Diagnostics Identification of weaknesses Existing problems Future needs Previous performance Research evidenceS In Asia diagnosis is done as following:
Relevance ii. Effectiveness iii.Efficiency


II. Formulation of Policy

Quantification Operational and performance oriented statements Strategies Consideration of resources

III.Assessment of future needs

Services Incentives

IV. Costing future needs Calculations Using best available data Costing is based on long range trends Inflation


V. Establishing priorities and target

setting Resources Needs
VI. Feasibility testing
Analysis of targets
Targets are modified Targets are adjusted

Macro planning Micro planning Perspective planning (7-15) Medium term planning ( 3-7)

Short term planning (1-3)


Plan formulation
Set of proposals for decision of

authorities To provide a blue print for action of various authorities Sector/sub sector wise Certain skills are required for the Purpose


Plan Elaboration
Plan expansion This involves two stages Programming Dividing the plan into broad areas Each area is called programme Projectisation Sub objectives/targets Project formulation Details of activities Cost and time Schedule

Plan Implementation
Execution of the project Management process Annual budget Annual plan Personnel training Incentives Accountability


Systematic feedback, Readjustment Revision, Target resetting, Change in strategies

Formative evaluation, Summative evaluation

Quantitative evaluation, Qualitative evaluation

Evaluation of the evaluation


Policy by political peoples

Planning by planning commission Projects by bodies