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Analog Power Meter

Govind.Kohade
Course:- RF I&C

WHAT IS ANALOG POWER METER?


Analog power meter is a device which is used

to measure the output power of the TRX and reflected power of Antenna and Antenna Line

Why We Use APM


To measure the output power of TRX

check the working status of TRX (faulty or ok) By the forward power measurement To measure the reflected power of antenna line check the working condition of antenna And antenna line By the reflected power measurement

Requirement to measure power by APM


1.

2.
3. 4. 5.

Analog power meter Element jumper adapter ( 7/8 male to 1/2male ) Adapter (1/2 male to 7/8 female) Dummy load ( 50 50watt)

Element
we use element according to the power of TRX

Element comes in watt and frequency


a) b) c) d) e) f)

List of the element 5 watt 10 watt 20 watt 25 watt 50 watt 100 watt

Price of equipment
price
APM (bird electronics)
25,000-35,000Rs

Element

25,000-30,000Rs

Jumper adapter

3500-5000Rs

Adapter

3000-4000Rs

Manufacturer of analog power meter


Bird Electronics

Anritsu
Coaxial Dynamics Hp Agilent Acterna

Distributer of apm in india


APM

DISTRIBUTER

AIMIL LTD

MEERA AGENCY

BIRD APM

ANRITSU APM

Forward power measurement


.
4
5 8 10

A N T E N N A

A . P. M.

3
2
SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

6 7 9

11

12

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

LABELLING
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

BTS BTS port 7/8f Connector of Jumper adapter 7/8m Jumper adapter cable Connector of Jumper adapter m Input port of APM f Element (direction of arrow should be from i/p to o/p port) Deflection Scale Output port of APM f Adapter(1/2m-7/8f) 7/8 antenna line connector Antenna line

Procedure for fwd power measurement


1.

2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7.

8.

Put the TRX in non working condition by logically (laptop) or physically (switch) Remove the jumper from BTS top for that particular TRX Put APM on the BTS top near to the port Connect the jumper adapter 7/8m with the BTS port and 1/2m with the i/p port of the APM Connect the adapter 1/2m with the o/p port of the APM and 7/8f with the antenna line Take a element as per the requirement Insert the element in APM.(at the time of jack-in or jackout direction of the element arrow should be in upward or downward direction) If every thing is fine put the TRX in enable mode(TRX will take a few minute to resume the services )

>>>
9. Once the TRX resume the services we will found out the deflection in mater so just read read the scale no 10. Note-down the forward power in power measurement sheet 11. Again put off the same TRX in non-working condition or disable mode 12. Remove all the connection from BTS top and connect antenna line with the BTS port 13. Put the TRX in enable mode 14. Repeat same step for all the next TRX.

REFLECTED POWER MEASUREMENT


Reflected power is based on the maximum power

transfer theorem. Maximum power transfer theorem output impedance of the one circuit = input impedance of the other circuit If it is true then some of the signal may reflect back Properties of Reflected power
1)
2)

Reflected power degret the quality of network Reflect power block some of the frequency or band of the frequency

Case 1
Outer layer of RF Cable looks like a two parallel plate

R Outer layer C Inner layer C

R C

Reflected power is 0 watt

Resonan t circuit

Case 2
Dent in the RF cable signal

R
R R C C

Capacitance value get changed because of the dent

Block the signal and reflect the power from that

point Reflected power is more then 0.5 watt Cable is faulty

Case 3
R

R
R

C R

R C

signal

Resistance value get changed because of the bend in cable Block the signal and reflect the power from that point Reflected power is more then 0.5 watt

R C

REFLECTED POWER MEASURMENT


.
A . P. M.

A N T E N N A

SECTO R 1

SECTO R 2

SECTO R 3

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

LABELLING
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

BTS BTS port 7/8f Connector of Jumper adapter 7/8m Jumper adapter cable Connector of Jumper adapter m Input port of APM f Direction of the arrow should be from o /p to i/p Element Deflection Scale Output port of APM f Adapter(1/2m-7/8f) 7/8 m antenna line connector Antenna line

Procedure for Reflected power measurement


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.
7.

Put the TRX in non working condition by logically (laptop) or physically (switch off ) Remove the jumper connection from BTS top for that particular TRX Put APM on the BTS top near to the port Connect the jumper adapter 7/8m with the BTS port and 1/2m with the i/p port of the APM Connect the adapter 1/2m with the o/p port of the APM and 7/8f with the antenna line Take a element as per the requirement (5 watt or 10 watt) Insert the element in APM and the Direction of the arrow should be from o /p to i/p I/P O/P

(Note: At the time of jack-in or jack-out direction of the element arrow should be in upward or downward direction)

>>>
8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

If every thing is fine put the TRX in enable mode(TRX will take a few minute to resume the services ) Once the TRX resume the services we will found out the deflection in mater so just read the scale now Note-down the Reflected power in power measurement sheet Again put off the same TRX in non-working condition or disable mode Remove the connection of Antenna line from o/p port of APM Connect the other Antenna line with the o/p port of the APM. (Note: No need to change the TRX connection for other Antenna line )

HOW TO LOCALIZE FAULT IN ANTENNA LINE?


Requirement 1. Analog power meter 2. Element (5 watt or 10 watt) 3. Jumper adapter (7/8 male to 1/2 male) 4. Adapter (1/2 male to 7/8 female) 5. Dummy load (50 50watt)

PROCEDURE
Here we take the 1st sector of the BTS. Two Antenna line Antenna Line 1 and Antenna Line 2 of 1st sector.

assume Antenna Line 2 is not faulty (as a reference)

1 dummy load for ideal condition

Step 1
Antenna Line 2

A N T E N N A

APM
Antenna Line 1

SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

Put the APM near to the BTS b/w the Antenna Line 1 Read the scale
If Reflected power is 0 watt means Antenna &

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

Antenna line 1 is ok. If Reflected power is more than 0.5 watt Antenna or Antenna Line 1 is faulty

Step 2
APM
Antenna Line 1

Dummy load

Antenna Line 2

A N T E N N A

SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

Remove the connection of Antenna line 1 from Antenna port and connect with the Dummy Load Read the scale

If Reflected power is 0 watt means Antenna Line 1 is ok and Antenna or Antenna port is faulty If Reflected power is more then 0.5 watt mean's

Step 3
Antenna Line 2

A N T E N N A

APM
Antenna Line 1

Connect the Antenna Line 2 with the


SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

o/p port of the APM [here we assume Antenna Line 2 is ok (not faulty) ] Read the scale
Reflected power is 0 watt

Step 4
Antenna Line 2

A N T E N N A

APM
Antenna Line 1

Connect the Antenna Line 2 with first


SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

Antenna port Read the scale


If Reflected power is 0 watt means Antenna

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

port is ok and Antenna Line 1 is faulty If Reflected power is more then 0.5 watt means Antenna port is defiantly faulty and Antenna Line 1 may be faulty

Step 5
APM

Dummy load o/d jumper cable Antenna Line 2 Antenna Line 1

A N T E N N A

Remove the o/d jumper cable of Antenna Line 1


SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

and connect the Dummy Load with the RF cable (another end of the RF cable is connected with the o/p port of the APM) Read the scale
If the Reflected power is 0 watt means o/d Jumper cable

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

is faulty (Note: Replace the o/d Jumper cable) If the Reflected power is more than 0.5 watt means Rf cable or i/d jumper cable is faulty and o/d Jumper cable

Step 6
APM

Dummy load o/d jumper cable Antenna Line 2 Antenna Line 1

A N T E N N A

Remove the o/d jumper cable of Antenna Line 1 and


SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

connect the Dummy Load with the o/d jumper cable , another end of the o/d jumper cable is connected with the Antenna Line 2) Read the scale
If the Reflected power is 0 watt means o/d Jumper cable is

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

ok If the Reflected power is more than 0.5 watt means o/d jumper cable is faulty (Note: Replace the o/d Jumper cable)

Step 7
APM i/d jumper cable Antenna Line 2

o/d jumper cable

A N T E N N A

Dummy load
RF cable

Remove the RF cable of Antenna Line 1 and


SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

connect Dummy Load with the i/d Jumper cable Read the scale
If the Reflected power is 0 watt means i/d jumper cable is

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

ok and Rf cable is faulty (Note: replace the o/d jumper cable) If the reflected power is more then 0.5 watt means i/d jumper cable is faulty (Note: replace the i/d jumper cable)

Step 8
APM Antenna Line 2

Dummy load

A N T E N N A

i/d jumper cable antenna line 2 RF cable

o/d jumper cable

Remove the RF cable of Antenna Line 1 and


SECTO R 1 SECTO R 2 SECTO R 3

connect Dummy Load and other end with the i/d Jumper cable of Antenna Line 2 Read the scale
If the Reflected power is 0 watt means Rf cable is

T T T T T T RR R R R R XX X X X X

ok If the Reflected power is more then 0.5 watt means RF cable is faulty (Note: replace the RF cable cable)