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Textile Science

Dr. Nilanjana Bairagi

Preparatory to weaving

After spinning, winding is the most widely used process to prepare the yarn for weaving. Winding is the process of transferring a yarn from one type package to another, to combine similar packages and to clear defects such as thick and thin places from the yarn. Winding is important

For removal of yarn faults For increased production efficiency in the subsequent processes For removal of yarn hariness by singeing and waxing

Cone winding

Cheese winding


Subjecting yarn to moisture & heat to offset the liveliness created by twist during yarn forming is known as yarn conditioning.


Transferring many yarns from a creel of single end packages to form a parallel sheet of yarns wound on a warp beam or a section beam; used in weaving and warp knitting.

Section warping

Winding parallel sections of yarn sheet side by side into a wider full sheet, used in weaving.

Ball warping

Combing yarns from a creel into a condensed rope which is wound as a single strand forming a log-type package is called a ball. Several of these balls are used in a rope dyeing process; used in weaving typically with the indigo dyeing process in the production of denim fabric.

Indigo dyeing- rope dyeing

Draw warping

Combing the drawing of filament yarns with heat setting and warping process to achieve uniform stretching and heating for improved dye uniformity.


Combing yarns either from single-end packages or section beams ( multi-end sheets) forming a final sheet of yarns for fabric formation used for weaving or knitting.

Yarn properties required for weaving

Spun yarn should have the following properties for being used as a warp yarn.

High strength Uniformity Less hairy Abrasion resistant


Application of sizing chemicals to yarns to improve yarn properties and combining of section beams, sheet to sheet, forming a final beam for fabric formation. Purpose:

To significantly reduce the yarn hariness that would interfere with the weaving process. To protect the yarn from yarn to yarn & yarn to-loom abrasion To increase the strength of the yarn

Sizing agents

Starch Polyvinyl alcohol Acrylates (acrylic based) Addition of polyester resin

Properties of sizing agents

Should have affinity for the fibre Should have good adhesion properties The size should penetrate the yarn easily The size must be quick to dry Size should not enable bacterial & fungal growth Size should be easily soluble & should be easily removed


Primary motions

Shedding Picking Beat up

Secondary motions

Let off Take up

Basic Mechanisms

SHEDDING: Separation of the warp yarns which run down the fabric into two layers to form a tunnel known as the shed. PICKING: Passing the weft yarn through the shed, across the fabric BEAT UP: Pushing the newly inserted length of weft, know as the pick into the already woven fabric at a point known as the fell.

Secondary motions

LET OFF: This motion delivers warp to the weaving area at the required rate and a suitable constant tension by unwiding it from the weavers beam. TAKE UP: This motion withdraws fabric from the weaving area at a constant rate that will give the required pick spacing and then winds it to the roller.


Auxiliary motions

Warp stop motions: In case of a warp break automatic stoppage of the loom. Weft stop motions: In case of a weft breakage automatic stoppage of the loom.

Basic Weaves

Plain: Simple form of weave, I up /1 down. Twill: Diagonal lines Satin/ Sateen

Plain weave

Simple form of weave, I up /1 down. Light weight plain weaves: chiffon, voile, poplin Heavy weight plain weaves: canvas, suiting

Twill weave

Twill weaves are characterized by diagonal ribs caused by staggered floats of yarn on the fabric face. Face and back are different; fabrics are usually used with the warp yarns predominating on the face. Twill fabrics which are balanced in fabric count and in warp and fill yarn sizes show a 45 degree twill angle. Unbalanced twills may show steeper or shallower twill angels. Denim, Jeans, Suitings, Drill Uniform

Satin weave

Satin fabrics are usually woven with flat continuous filament yarns, and are warp-faced. The face of the fabric is formed almost completely of warp or filling floats produced in the repeat of the weave. This is achieved by spacing the yarn crossover or intersection points a evenly and widely as possible. The weave produces a fabric with a characteristic smooth surface.