Dr. Nilanjana Bairagi


Classification of yarns
 Yarn is a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments or materials in a form suitable for knitting, weaving or intertwining.  Thread is a specific term for yarn used to join fabrics by the process of sewing.

 Classification:
    Single yarn/ Plyed yarn Spun yarns/ Continuous filament Homogenous spun/ blended yarn Simple/ Fancy yarns


Spun yarn / staple yarn
 When short staple fibres are twisted together by the process of spinning, the product may be referred to as a staple or spun yarn.  A single spun strand produced by one of the processes above is referred to as a singles yarn.

 When two or more single strands are combined, the yarns become a ply yarn and each strand is referred as a ply.


Yarn size or Yarn numbering systems
 Yarn numbering system is used to denote the linear density of a yarn.  Direct system and Indirect system  Direct system- system denoting the fineness of yarn by weighing a constant length of yarn
     Tex Decitex Denier English count Worsted count

 Indirect System- is based on length per unit weight of yarn

 International Standard Organization ( ISO) have recommended the tex system as the standard yarn numbering system.

Direct System- Yarn numbering
 Tex is denoted by the weight in grams of 1000 metres of yarn.  Example: If 1000 metres of cotton yarn weigh 20 grams, then the count of the yarn is 20 TEX.  Decitex: Weight in grams of 10, 000 metres of yarn.  Denier: Weight in grams of 9000 metres of yarn.

 The weight of 6000 metres of silk yarn is 12 grams. Calculate the yarn fineness in terms of tex, decitex and denier.


Indirect system of yarn numbering
 Based on the length per unit weight of a yarn and is usually known as a COUNT. It is known as count because it is based on the number of hanks of certain length of yarn which are needed to make a fixed weight.  Cotton Count= Number of hanks of 840 yards weighing 1 pound.
  I yard= 3 feet = 36 inches = 0.9144 m = 91.44 cm 1 pound = 454 grams or 2.2 pounds= 1000 gram

 Worsted Count= Number of hanks of 560 yards in 1 pound  Metric Count = Number of kilometre lengths in 1 kg of yarn


Lets work out!!!
 A cotton hank weighs 4 pounds and the length of yarn in the hank is 6720 yards. What is the cotton count of the hank?  Express the linear density of the yarn in tex also.


Direct & Indirect system of yarn numbering
Direct system Higher the yarn number the thicker / coarser is the yarn. Indirect system Higher the count, the finer the yarn.

Which yarn is finer ? 100 Tex or 100 Cotton Counts ?


Resultant yarn count
 80 tex * 2  74 tex/2  2/24s - A yarn made from 2, 24 count worsted yarn twisted together.


Yarn Twist
 The fibres are twisted together by the process of spinning to produce a yarn that will withstand the rigors of weaving or knitting.  Yarn twist affects the strength, lustre, abrasion resistance, hand, absorbency and flexibility of the fabric.  Direction of Twist ( S or Z Twist)  Cotton yarns generally have Z twist  Woolen yarns generally have S twist


 Twist is measured in terms of turns per inch ( tpi)  Yarns with low level of twist are softer, have more bulk.  Fine yarn usually require a higher tpi than coarse yarns  Twist Multiplier ( TM) = tpi/ ( Ne)1/2
    Knitting yarns = 2 to 3 TM Weft yarns = 3 to 4 TM Warp yarns = 4 to 5 Tm Crepe yarns= 5 to 7 TM

 A plyed yarn is stronger than single yarn

Yarn types and their main characteristics
1. Staple yarns / spun yarns
1. 2. 3. 4. Combed yarns Carded yarns Worsted yarns Woolen yarns


Continuous filament yarns
1. 2. Natural Man-made or synthetic
a. b. Monofilament yarn Multifilament yarn

3. 4.

Novelty/ Fancy yarns Special end use or industrial yarns

Yarn formation


Combed Yarn & carded yarn
 Carding is the process of parallelization of the fibres, elimination of neps and sliver formation. When a card sliver is drawn and spun in a yarn, the yarn is know as carded yarn. The characteristics of the yarn are: irregular, hairy and coarse as compared to combed yarn. For high quality yarns of superior evenness, smoothness, fineness and strength, fibres are combed after carding. The yarn which is made from combed fibres is known as combed yarn.




Woolen and worsted yarn
 Woolen yarn: To produce woolen yarns several lots are combined, carded, drawn and spun. The yarns produced have less fibre orientation than carded short –staple cotton yarn. They are non-uniform, bulky, rough and have a hairy surface. Worsted yarn: To produce worsted yarn several lots of wool are combined, carded, combed, drawn and spun. The card sliver is processed through a comber to remove short fibres and the remaining foreign matter to produce parallel alignment. The worsted yarns are relatively smoother,finer, have even surface and compact structure and more strength and are of superior quality.


Ring spinning


Open end spinning


Open end spinning
 Rotor spinning  Air-jet spinning  Friction spinning ( DREF Spinning)


Open end spinning
 Air jet spinning: Two air-jet nozzles with opposing air –vortexes twist the drafted sliver to form a yarn, which is stronger than rotor spun yarn, but has a tendency to pill.

 Friction spinning: Dref m/c evolved from the work of Dr. Ernst Feher. The sliver is fed to the m/c. The fibres are separated and transported to the friction spinning rollers, where the fibre strand is twisted to form yarn.



Intermingled yarn


Fancy yarns


Fancy yarns
 Yarns whose appearances differ significantly from that of a simple yarn due to irregularities deliberately produced during their formation are called as Novelty or Fancy Yarns.
 Fancy yarns are used to provide design interest; thus their primary markets are in apparel and decorative fabrics.

 Types of Fancy yarns:
       Boucle yarns Chenille yarns Corkscrew or spiral yarnsCrepe yarns Flock yarns Loop yarns Nub, Knot & spot yarns Thick & thin yarns

Fancy yarns
 Boucle: Boucle yarns are characterized by tight loops that project from the body of the yarn at fairly regular intervals. Used in knitted sweaters, woven dresses and upholstery fabrics.  Chenille: Derived from a term which means “caterpillar”. It refers to a special, soft, fuzzy, loft yarn with pile protruding on all sides. It is produced from woven leno fabric structure that is slit into narrow, warp wise strips to serve as yarn.  Corkscrew or spiral yarn:
  Loose yarn twisted on a tight yarn Two plies of different count ( fine around coarse ply)


Fancy yarns
 Crepe yarn: Are produced with high level of twist to give them liveliness. They may be single or plyed yarns. The twist in this yarn is not balanced, so the yarns have a tendency to kink and snarl.  Flock yarns: Are frequently called flake yarns and are usually single yarns to which small tufts of fibre are added at intervals. The tufts are held to the yarn by twist or adhesive.  Loop yarns: Loops are more predominant and less evenly spaced.  Nub, knot and spot yarns: The effect yarns is wrapped around several times for special effect.  Slub yarns: Produced by uneven twisting  Thick and thin yarns: This yarns are produced in the form of filament yarns by varying the pressure forcing the polymer solution through the spinnerette.

Fancy/Novelty yarns


Bulky yarns

ASTM D-123 defines a bulk yarn as: A yarn that has been prepared in such a way as to have greater covering power or apparent volume, than that of conventional yarn of equal linear density and of the same basic material with normal twist.

Bulk yarns
 Three types of bulk yarns are:  Bulky yarns  Textured yarns  Stretch yarns

 Stretch yarns have high degree of elastic stretch and rapid recovery.


Textured yarn

These yarns have been given greater apparent volume than conventional yarns of similar fibre count and density. The apparent increase in volume is achieved through physical, chemical or heat treatment or a combination of these

Core Spun Yarn


Sewing Threads
 May be textured continuous filament, staple fibre or core yarn.  Properties of sewing threads:
          Knot free Strength Abrasion resistance Smooth Elasticity Heat dissipation Colour fast Shrinkage resistant Must withstand hot pressing & dry cleaning Proper packaging






Foam Laminated


Bonded fabric
 A fabric joined by a bonding process in which an outer or face fabric is joined or welded to a backing or lining ply by an adhesive agent.


Tufted Fabric



Lace is a fragile , fine or elaborately designed openwork fabric structure produced by manipulating a network of thread or yarn, or by the use of caustic chemicals on a base fabric.

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