Microwave welcomes You..

Facts and statistics..
Agricultural production during 2001-02 was 209MT. Agro and food processing sector ranks fifth in India’s GDP. Employs around 18% of country’s industrial force. Export growth from 2,821cr (91-92) to 10,770cr (2000-01). Largest live stock population in the world. Second, fifth and sixth largestHindu oct-12, 2002 ] [ The producer of fruit

Weakness of Indian food sector..

High wastage levels leading to low processing levels

High seasonability & perishability – low profit margin

Lack of requisite packaging quality and presentabilit required for marketing.

Lack of ready acceptance in international marketing. Higher cost of processing [ The Hindu oct12,2002 ]

Microwave (MW) Processing..
MW heating refers to use of non-ionizing electromagnetic waves of certain

frequencies to generate heat in material.

Microwave processing results in excellent retention of nutritional and sensory value besides having other advantages like saving in energy, cost, time, etc

The speed with which heating takes place in the

UNIQUENESS OF MICROWAVE HEATING TECHNOLOGY
 Speed: Processes taking hours by conventional means

are possible in few minutes by mw processing.

Uniform

volumetric

heating:

Heat

is

generated

uniformly throughout the entire substance
 Self regulating and differential heating  Efficiency: Efficiency higher than 70%  Instantaneous control  Lower cost: Reduction in processing time thus saving

Electromagnetic spectrum and their applications

Available MW FrequenciesMHz 915 MHz ± 13
2450 MHz ± 50 MHz 5800 MHz ± 75 MHz 24125 MHz ± 125 MHz

Frequency range
300MHz – 300GHz

Corresponding wavelength
1m – 1mm

Heating mechanism..
Accomplished by
 Absorption of mw energy by water molecules

(Dipolar rotation) (Tries to align with changing polarity- 2.45 b times / sec ,generates heat) conduction)

 Translation of ionic components of foods (Ionic

Effect of electromagnetic radiation on dipoles

Critical Process Factors in Microwave Heating
Shape, size, composition (moisture, salt), liquid against solid multiple components (as in a frozen dinner),

Food

Package

Presence of metallic elements such as aluminum foil, susceptor Power level, cycling, presence of hot water or air around the food, equilibration time

Process

Dimensions, shape and other electromagnetic characteristics Equipment of the oven, frequency, agitation of the food, presence of mode stirrers and turntables

Conventional Vs microwave heating..
 Surface heating  Slow process  Low thermal efficiency

 Volumetric heating
 Rapid heating  High thermal Efficiency mw oven-40%  Uniform Heating  Moisture removal (<20%)  Better quality product

electric oven - 14% gas oven - 7%  Non-uniformity heating  Moisture removal (8090%)  Low product quality (over heating, case hardening)

Interaction of electromagnetic fields with materials

Absorption

Food, oil, water, wood

Transmission

Belts, trays, dishes

Reflectio n

Applicato rs waveguid

Dielectric properties of foods..?
Intrinsic electrical properties that affect behavior of foods with EM fields material to store energy)
 ε’ - The relative dielectric constant (ability of  ε” - The dielectric loss factor (ability of  Tan δ - The dissipation factor or loss tangent

material to convert EMW to heat) (ε’/ ε”)

Measurement of dielectric properties
 Optimization and process control

ate of heat generation per unit volume ( wm-3 )
Q=2Π f ε0 ε” E2

!

= Strength of electric field of the wave at that location (volts / unit dista = is the frequency =The permittivity of free space (a physical constant) = the dielectric loss factor .
 The rate of temperature increase

kƒE2 ε” ε’ δ Cp Where,
k = constant to define the units of temperature and time ƒ = frequency of the microwaves E = strength of the electric field inside the food δ = density of the food

Dielectric properties and penetration depth (cm) of various foods @ 2,450 MHz

Water (distilled, 25°C) Ice (-12°C) Beef (cooked, 30°C) Potato (raw, 25°C) Potato (mashed, 30°C) (20°C, 5% Wheat moisture) Corn Oil (25°C) Cottonseed Oil (20°C) Butter (salted, 20°C) Butter (unsalted, 20°C) Bread Dough Bread

Material

ε'
78.0 3.2 30.5 57.3 72.5 3.3 2.5 2.6 4.6 2.9 22.0 4.6

ε”
12.0 0.003 9.6 15.7 24.0 0.50 0.14 0.18 0.60 0.45 9.00 1.20

Tanδ
0.15 0.001 0.31 0.27 0.33 0.15 0.06 0.07 0.13 0.16 0.41 0.26

Dp
1.4 1160.0 1.1 0.9 0.7 7.1 21.9 17.5 6.9 7.4 1.0 3.5

Microwave oven

netron converts 50-60 Hz AC to higher frequency EMW icators waveguides, coaxial tube

600-1400w 2450mhz

External view & Internal parts of the domestic microwave system

Sectional view of a typical magnetron..

Equivalent circuit of one resonant cavity

Antenna

Electrons form a rotating patterns Internal parts of magnetron
[ http:www.dtx.net 1999]

Microwave industrial conveyor system
 High energy power source with long life.  The system has internal protection features  Forced-air system efficiently.  A straight-through conveyor assures uniform exposure to the microwaves.

accelerates the removal of moisture quickly a

 Because of its high processing capacity, unit costs are much lower than w the batch process

Microwave conveyor system..
Dimensions (approx): Material of Construction: Conveyor Belt: Conveyor Opening: Elevation of Belt: Belt Speed: Shipping Weight: Conveyor Drive: 5.5 x 0.41x 1.52 (meters) SS - 300 grade Width (0.30m) link polypropylene belt H x w (0.03 to 0.08 x 0.32 m) 1.02 m 0 to 50 ft./min 1180 Kg. 0.75 HP motor driven sprocket and chain Solid state controls digital read out, convent belt speed forward and reverse stop start, inverter voltage supply to drive motor

Controller Panel:

Capacity- 0.5kg/min

FDU230V single/ three phase Electrical Requirements: 543VD 50- 60 Hz Ac Microwave Heating 54kW 12 kW at 2450 MHz Power: 2450MHz chamber, and Panel Heating Safety Interlocks: 6kW x 9 interlocks units Entry and exit tunnels and
Removable end Panels: side covers removable for cleaning

www.microwavereasearch.com]

A REPRESENTATIVE MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS SCENARIO
MICROWAVE (MW)

INFORMATION POWER

COMMUNICATION

MICROWAVE HEATNG HEATING

MICROWAVE

MICROWAVE MICROWAVE PROCESSING PROCESSING

DOMESTIC OVEN

INDUSTRIAL

THERMAL

NON- THERMAL

FOOD PROCESSING

pasteurization
STERILIZATION TEMPERING DRYING BAKING

MOISTURE MEASUREMENT SEED treatment

Insect control

cooking blanching

Microwave food processing applications..
PROCESS PRODUCTS

Tempering Cooking Drying Vacuum drying Freeze drying Pasteurization Sterilization Baking Roasting Blanching Rendering

Meat, fish, poultry Bacon, meat patties, sausage, potatoes Pasta, onions, egg yolk, snack foods Orange juice, grains, seeds Meat, vegetables, fruits Bread, yoghurt Pouch packed foods Bread , donuts Nuts, grains Vegetables, potatoes, corn, fruits Lard, tallow

Schematic of the combined microwave conventional drying system

Air Tuning screws Power meters Blower

Electrical Heaters
GENER ATOR

Drying chamber

Mixing Fan

3-way circulator Air Outlet

Economics of microwave drying system..

w system varies between 3-4 lakhs / kW for a basic drying system

W of mw energy removes 1.5 kg of water/h

w system has coupling efficiency of 75%

nversion efficiency of electricity to mw energy is 45-50 %

es conversion from AC to DC 4% DC to mw 40% waveguide and applicator 10%

Energy Cost/hour = (utility rate/kwh) (kw of system) (efficiency)

Limitations of microwave heating.. High capital investment: Initial cost of equipment is very high but has lower operating cost, and increased output.

More complex technology devices: Requires skilled personnel for repair and operation. Mw radiation problem: By proper shielding the radiation can be brought down to safer limit.

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