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# Background

Aerodynamics (25%) Helicopter Aerodynamics a. Aerodynamic Forces, Moments, Torque b. Flight Performance, Stability and Control

Outline
Introduction Definitions Classification Principles Systems and Operations Sample Questions

History
In the latter part of the 1830s the SwedishAmerican engineer John Ericsson and the English inventor Sir Francis P. Smith independently patented screw propellers.

Definitions
Propeller
is a device for propelling an aircraft through the air having blades mounted on a power-driven shaft which when rotated produces by its action on the air a thrust approximately parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and shall also include a system of rotating airfoils which serve either to counteract the effect of the main rotor torque of a rotorcraft or to maneuver a rotorcraft about one or more of its three principal axes.

Definitions
Airfoil
Any surface designed to produce lift or thrust when air passes over it

Chordline
Imaginary straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge.

Definitions

Definitions
is the surface of the propeller blade that corresponds to the lower surface of an airfoil.

## Thrust Face / Cambered side

is the curved surface of the airfoil.

Definitions

Definitions
is the cutting edge that slices into the air. As the leading edge cuts the air, air flows over the blade face and the camber side.

is the section of the blade nearest the hub.

is the outer end of the blade farthest from the hub.

Definitions
Plane of Rotation
is an imaginary plane perpendicular to the shaft. It is the plane that contains the circle in which the blades rotate.

is formed between the face of an element and the plane of rotation. The blade angle throughout the length of the blade is not the same.

Definitions
Pitch
refers to the distance a spiral threaded object moves forward in one revolution. As a wood screw moves forward when turned in wood, same with the propeller move forward when turn in the air.

Definitions
Geometric Pitch
is the theoretical distance a propeller would advance in one revolution.

Effective Pitch
is the actual distance a propeller advances in one revolution in the air. The effective pitch is always shorter than geometric pitch due to the air is a fluid and always slip.

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions
Relative Wind
is the air that strikes and pass over the airfoil as the airfoil is driven through the air.

Angle of Attack
is the angle between the chord of the element and the relative wind. The best efficiency of the propeller is obtained at an angle of attack around 2 to 4 degrees.

is the path of the direction of the blade element moves.

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions
are the airfoil sections joined side by side to form the blade airfoil. These elements are placed at different angles in rotation of the plane of rotation.

Classification
According to installation
Tractor type and Pusher type

According to pitch
Fixed pitch, ground adjustable, controllable pitch and automatic

Classification
Tractor Type
Tractor propellers are those mounted on the upstream end of a drive shaft in front of the supporting structure. Most aircraft are equipped with this type of propeller. A major advantage of the tractor propeller is that lower stresses are included in the propeller as it rotates in relatively undisturbed air.

Classification
Pusher Type
Pusher propellers are those mounted on the downstream end of a drive shaft behind the supporting structure. Pusher propellers are constructed as fixed- or variable-pitch propellers. Seaplanes and amphibious aircraft have used a greater percentage of pusher propellers than other kinds of aircraft.

Classification
Fixed-pitch Type
a fixed-pitch propeller has the blade pitch, or blade angle, built into the propeller. The blade angle cannot be changed after the propeller is built.

Classification
The ground-adjustable propeller operates as a fixedpitch propeller. The pitch or blade angle can be changed only when the propeller is not turning. This is done by loosening the clamping mechanism which holds the blades in place. After the clamping mechanism has been tightened, the pitch of the blades cannot be changed in flight to meet variable flight requirements. Like the fixed-pitch propeller, the ground-adjustable propeller is used on airplanes of low power, speed, range, or altitude.

Classification

Classification
Controllable-pitch Type
The controllable-pitch propeller permits a change of blade pitch, or angle, while the propeller is rotating. This permits the propeller to assume a blade angle that will give the best performance for particular flight conditions. The number of pitch position may be limited, as with a two-position controllable propeller; or the pitch may be adjusted to any angle between the minimum and maximum pitch settings of given propeller.

Classification
Controllable-pitch Type

Classification

Classification
Automatic Type
In automatic propeller system, the Control system adjusts pitch, without attention by the operator, to maintain a specific preset engine rpm. For example, if engine speed increases, the controls automatically increase the blade angle until desired rpm has been re-established. A good automatic control system will respond to such small variations of rpm that, for all practical purposes, a constant rpm will be maintained. Automatic propellers are often termed constant speed propellers.

Principles
Dryewiecki Theory
The first satisfactory theory for the design of aircraft propellers was known as the bladeelement theory. A Polish scientist named Dryewiecki developed this theory in 1909; hence, it is sometimes referred to as the Dryewiecki Theory.

Principles
This theory assumes that the propeller blade from the end of the hub barrel to the tip of the propeller blade is divided into various small, rudimentary airfoil sections. For example, if a propeller 10 ft in diameter has a hub 12 in. in diameter, then each blade is 54 in. long and can be divided into fifty-four 1-in. airfoil sections

Principles
According to the blade-element theory, the many airfoil sections, or elements, being joined together side by side, unite to form an airfoil, (the blade) that can create thrust when revolving in a plane about a central axis. Each element must be designed as part of the blade to operate at its own best angle of attack to create thrust when revolving at its best design speed.

Principles

Principles
The thrust developed by a propeller is in accordance with Newtons third law of motion: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, and the two are directed along the same straight line. In the case of a propeller, the first action is the acceleration of a mass of air to the rear of the airplane. This means that, if the propeller is exerting a force of 200 lb. to accelerate a given mass of air, it is, at the same time exerting a force of 200 lb. tending to pull the airplane in the direction opposite that in which the air is accelerated. That is, when the air is accelerated rearward, the airplane is pulled forward. The quantitative relationships among mass, acceleration, and force can be determined by the use of the formula for Newtons Second Law: F = ma, or force is equal to the product of mass and acceleration.

Forces
Lift
Differential pressure on the upper camber and lower camber

Drag
Force that resist movement of the airfoil through the air

Forces
Thrust
is the air force on the propeller which is parallel to the direction of advance and induce bending stress in the propeller.

Centrifugal force
is caused by rotation of the propeller and tends to throw the blade out from the center.

Forces
Torsion or Twisting forces in the blade itself, caused by the resultant of air forces which tend to twist the blades toward a lower blade angle.

Forces

Stresses
Bending stresses are induced by the thrust forces. These stresses tend to bend the blade forward as the airplane is moved through the air by the propeller. Tensile stresses are caused by centrifugal force. Torsion stresses are produced in rotating propeller blades by two twisting moments. One of these stresses is caused by the air reaction on the blades and is called the aerodynamic twisting moment. Another stress is caused by centrifugal force and is called the centrifugal twisting moment

Stresses

Operation
To understand the action of a propeller, consider first its motion, which is both rotational and forward. Thus, shown by the vectors of propeller forces in figure 1H, a section of a propeller blade moves downward and forward. As far as the forces are concerned, the result was the same as if the blade were stationary and the air were coming at it from a direction opposite its path. The angle at which this air (relative wind) strikes the propeller blade is called angle of attack. The air deflection produced by this angle causes the dynamic pressure at the engine side of the propeller blade to be greater than atmospheric, thus creating thrust.

Operation
Propeller Feathering
The term feathering refers to the operation of rotating the blades of a propeller to an edgeto-the-wind position for the purpose of stopping the rotation of the propeller whose blades are thus feathered and to reduce drag. Therefore, a feathered blade is in an approximate in-line-of-flight position, streamlined with the line of flight. Some, but not all, propellers can be feathered.

Operation

Operation
Reverse Thrust
When propellers are reversed, their blades are rotated below their positive angle, that is, through flat pitch, until a negative blade angle is obtained in order to produce a thrust acting in the opposite direction to the forward thrust normally given by the propeller.

Operation
Propeller Governor
The propeller governor is geared to the engine in order to sense the rpm of the engine at all times. The speed sensing is accomplished by means of rotating flyweights in the upper part of the governor body. As shown in the following diagrams, the flyweights are L-shaped and hinged at the outside where they attach to the flyweight head. The speed adjustment control lever is attached to the propeller control in the cockpit. As the speed adjusting lever is moved, it rotates the adjusting worm and increases or decreases the compression of the speeder spring. This affects the amount of flyweight force necessary to move the pilot valve plunger.

Operation

Operation
To increase the rpm of the engine, the speed adjusting control lever is rotated in the proper direction in the cockpit so as to increase speeder spring compression. It is therefore necessary that the engine rpm increase in order to apply the additional flyweight force to raise the pilot valve plunger to an on speed condition.

Operation

Operation

Operation
When the governor is in the overspeed condition, the engine rpm is greater than that selected by the control, and the flyweights are pressing outward. The toes of the flyweights have raised the pilot valve plunger to a position, which permits oil pressure from the propeller to return to the engine. The propeller counterweights and feathering spring can then rotate the propeller blades to a higher angle, thus causing the engine rpm to decrease.

Operation

Operation

Operation
When the governor is in an underspeed condition, that is, with engine rpm below the selected value, the governor flyweights are held inward by the speeder spring and the pilot valve plunger is in the down position. This position of the valve directs governor oil pressure from the governor gear pump to the propeller cylinder and causes the propeller blades to rotate to a lower pitch angle. The lower pitch angle allows the engine rpm to increase.

Operation

Operation

Operation

Helicopters
Main Parts Classification Systems Technical Terms

Main Parts
Cabin Airframe Landing Gears Powerplant Transmission Main rotor system Tail rotor system

## Main Parts of a Helicopter

Classification
Single main rotor system Dual rotor system

Classification

Rotor Systems
Fully articulated rotor system Semi rigid rotor system Rigid rotor system

Antitorque systems
Antitorque systems
Tail rotor system Fenestron system Notar system

Antitorque systems

Antitorque systems

## Flight controls system

Technical Terms
Autorotation
The condition of flight during which the main rotor is driven only by aerodynamic forces with no power from the engine.

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
The ability of the rotor blade to move in a vertical direction. Blades may flap independently or in unison.

Technical Terms
The fore and aft movement of the blade in the plane of rotation. It is sometimes called hunting or dragging.

Technical Terms
The load imposed on rotor blades, determined by dividing the total weight of the helicopter by the combined area of all the rotor blades.

Technical Terms
Centrifugal force
The apparent force that an object moving along a circular path exerts on the body constraining the object and that acts outwardly away from the center of rotation

Technical Terms
Centripetal force
The force that attracts a body toward its axis of rotation. It is opposite centrifugal force.

Technical Terms
Collective pitch control
The control for changing the pitch of all the rotor blades in the main rotor system equally and simultaneously and, consequently, the amount of lift or thrust being generated.

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
Coriolis effect
The tendency of a rotor blade to increase or decrease its velocity in its plane of rotation when the center of mass moves closer or further from the axis of rotation

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
Cyclic pitch control
The control for changing the pitch of each rotor blade individually as it rotates through one cycle to govern the tilt of the rotor disc and, consequently, the direction and velocity of horizontal movement.

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
Dissymmetry of lift
The unequal lift across the rotor disc resulting from the difference in the velocity of air over the advancing blade half and retreating blade half of the rotor disc area

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
Feathering
The action that changes the pitch angle of the rotor blades by rotating them around their feathering (spanwise) axis.

Technical Terms
Flare
A maneuver accomplished prior to landing to slow down a rotorcraft.

Technical Terms
Ground effect
A usually beneficial influence on rotorcraft performance that occurs while flying close to the ground. It results from a reduction in upwash, downwash, and blade tip vortices, which provide a corresponding decrease in induced drag.

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
Gyroscopic precession
An inherent quality of rotating bodies, which causes an applied force to be manifested 90 degrees in the direction of rotation from the point where the force is applied.

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
The ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the aircraft.

Technical Terms
Pendular action
The lateral or longitudinal oscillation of the fuselage due to it being suspended from the rotor system.

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
Rotor
A complete system of rotating airfoils creating lift for a helicopter or gyroplane.

Technical Terms
Torque
In helicopters with a single, main rotor system, the tendency of the helicopter to turn in the opposite direction of the main rotor rotation.

Technical Terms
Translating tendency
The tendency of the single-rotor helicopter to move laterally during hovering flight. Also called tail rotor drift.

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
Translational lift
The additional lift obtained when entering forward flight, due to the increased efficiency of the rotor system.

Technical Terms

Technical Terms
Transverse-flow effect
A condition of increased drag and decreased lift in the aft portion of the rotor disc caused by the air having a greater induced velocity and angle in the aft portion of the disc.

Sample Questions

Sample Questions
1. When the propeller is moved rapidly through the air, a mass of air will be accelerated rearwards. The propeller is exerting a force which is equal to the mass of the air times the acceleration. This is according to
a. Newton's 2nd Law b. Dryewiecki Theory c. Newton's 3rd Law

Sample Questions
2. As a result of the action of the propeller, there will be an equal but opposite reaction called thrust which will tend to pull the airplane forward. This is according to a. Newton's 2nd Law b. Dryewiecki Theory c. Newton's 3rd Law

Sample Questions
3. The working theory behind the design of an efficient propeller a. Aerodynamics b. Dryewiecki Theory c. Otto Cycle

Sample Questions
4. The angle formed between the plane of rotation and the chord of the blade a. angle of attack b. blade angle c. angle of incidence

Sample Questions
5. The power supplied by the engine (RE) to the propeller a. Brake Hp b. Indicated Hp c. Thrust Hp

Sample Questions
6. The symbol for propeller efficiency is the Greek letter (eta). It is an expression of the ratio between... a. propeller and airplane speeds b. airplane speed and engine rpm c. thrust hp and brake hp

Sample Questions
7. Part of the propeller system to which the propeller blades are attached.

Sample Questions
8. For a fixed-pitch propeller and a given rotational speed, as the airplane velocity increases, the angle of attack of the relative wind... a. increases b. does not change c. decreases

Sample Questions
9. For a variable-pitch propeller and a given rotational speed, with no forward aircraft movement, the angle of attack of the relative wind... a. is less than the blade angle b. is equal to the blade angle. c. is greater than the blade angle.

Sample Questions
10. In an efficiently designed propeller, the blade angle of the propeller section ___________, as the distance from the axis of rotation decreases.
a. Increases b. is constant c. decreases

Sample Questions
11. The distance that a propeller blade element would advance in one revolution if it were moving through a solid medium, that is, no slip.
a. Pitch b. geometric pitch c. effective pitch

Sample Questions
12. The actual distance the airplane moves forward in flight in one revolution of the propeller. a. pitch b. geometric pitch c. effective pitch

Sample Questions
13. The force that tends to pull the blades away from the hub. a. aerodynamic force b. thrust c. centrifugal force

Sample Questions
14. Type of propeller which can only be adjusted when the aircraft is on the ground and engine is not running. a. fixed-pitch propeller b. controllable-pitch propeller c. ground-adjustable propeller

Sample Questions
15. Type of propeller mounted forward of the supporting structure.
a. fixed pitch b. pusher type c. tractor type

Sample Questions
16. During take-off, controllable-pitch propellers are set at _________ to enable the engine to run at maximum rpm. a. high blade angle b. low blade angle c. no specific setting

Sample Questions
17. In the constant-speed propeller, when the governor is in "on-speed" condition, the flyweight force is ____________ the speeder spring force.
a. greater than b. equal to c. lesser than

Sample Questions
18. In a constant-speed-propeller-equipped airplane, moving the throttle lever from low power to high power setting will momentarily cause an... a. overspeed condition. b. underspeed condition. c. on-speed condition.

Sample Questions
19. The operation wherein the propeller blade is turned to an "edge to the wind" position. a. feathering b. throttling c. thrust reversing

Sample Questions
20. During landing, in order to help the aircraft come to a stop sooner, reverse thrust is employed by... a. turning the propeller blade to a "negative angle b. turning the propeller blade to a "high angle c. propellers are not capable of reverse thrust

THE END