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SAP Business Workflow

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Course Content
 Introduction  Workflow architecture  Workflow Definition and workflow Template  Workflow steps in details  Task  Business Objects and Methods  Container Structure and Container Programming  Events  Organisational structure and role resolution  Different types of Agent  Workflow and ALE
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SAP Business Workflow
 SAP Business Workflow® is a cross-application tool that makes it possible to integrate business tasks/processes between applications.  This tool was introduced in R/3 Release 3.0A, and received a substantial facelift in the Enjoy Release, 4.6A,which warranted the new name Workflow Builder.

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Need of Workflow
2
Hmm ! Time to put in a purchase requisition request I wonder who approves buying this stuff?

3

1

5

TIME IS MONEY!!!
4

I guess I’d better send off some inter-office mail to ask the approvers to approve my requisition.

Time drags on . . .

Meanwhile, in Mr. Manager’s office . . . “What shall I do next?”

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Drawbacks
 Inefficiency.  Each lacks a way to trace where a task is.  Who executed or is executing it.  How much time it required.

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Why SAP Workflow
 Workflow ensures that the right work is sent to the right person at the right time in the right sequence with the right information.  Tool for the automization of business processes  Not tied up to any paricular application  Operates uniformly accross applications  Coordinate all participating tasks  Provide users with active support  Intelligent routing

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SAP Business Workflow Architecture

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Workflow Architecture
Organisational Level

Process Level

Business Object Level

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Workflow Definition

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Workflow Definition
A workflow definition describes the workflow process

Workflow definition consists of 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Basic Data Information about triggering events Initial Values Containers Bindings

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Workflow Builder
The workflow definition is created in the Workflow Builder and displayed graphically in a network. Transaction: SWDD Menu Path: Tools  Business Workflow  Development  Definition tools  Workflow Builder.

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Workflow Definition - Steps
A workflow definition is made up of individual modular steps.

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Example: Workflow Definition

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How are Workflows Created in a System
 Within workflow templates, there is a key with the following structure: - A WS task abbreviation for the workflow template - An 8-digit sequence number From the structure of the 8-digit number, the system knows whether the template is a standard template delivered by SAP or one created by the customer. Customer-defined templates start with the prefix number that was defined in Customizing for the system and client.

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Working with Workflow

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Workflow Design

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How workflow gets executed

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Workflow Toolbox - SWUS
Transaction: SWUS. Menu Path: Tools -> Business Workflow -> Development -> Runtime Tools-> Start Workflow (Test Environment).

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Workflow Steps

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Workflow definition steps
Workflow definition is made up of individual steps. When creating a step in a workflow definition, the step type must be specified first. There are - Steps which refer to business activities (activities & user decision)
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Steps which are used for internal process control and monitoring (condition, multiple condition, loop, etc)

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Business Activities Steps
 Activity - Can be a single step task with basic business functionality - Can be a multi-step task, which reference to a workflow definition  User Decision - This provides an opportunity for user interaction with the system. - The response to this decides the selection of the subsequent step.  Document from template - PA document is created from a document template using variables in the text that are filled during program execution.  Web Activity - Selected container elements are posted using http protocol in XML or SOAP message

 Subworkflow
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An activity which refers to a workflow rather than a task
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Internal process control Steps
 Condition - Branch on the basis of control information from the runtime dependent context of the workflow. - An attribute of this object can also be accessed for condition evaluation - Condition evaluation can be done by  Field comparison e.g constants , object attribute, system fields  Multiple condition - In contrast to condition, multiple condition makes it possible for the workflow definition to branch in more than two branches.
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For evaluation of the multiple condition, the value of the basis of comparison is checked at runtime against the comparison values and branched accordingly.

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Internal process control (contd.)
WHILE Loop - Steps are processed repeatedly until the conditions contained in the WHILE step no longer apply.  Until Loop - Steps are processed repeatedly until the condition contained in the UNTIL step is true.  Fork - Used for parallel processing branches. - Only a part of the parallel processing branches actually has to run to continue the workflow. - Dynamic parallel processing is also possible

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Internal process control (contd.)
Send mail - Text entered in this step can be used to send a mail to the agent assigned  Container operations - Used to perform arithmetic operation of value assignment to workflow container elements using constants and data in the workflow container .

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Internal process control (contd.)
 Event Creator - An event is created when this step in the workflow is reached. - Other workflows can be started as a reaction to the event created in this step. This event must be the triggering event of the relevant workflow tasks and/or templates.  WAIT for event - Used to stop the whole execution of the workflow until the event is created in the system. - Used to wait for events for parallel processing

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Task & Workflow Definition

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Tasks are used to describe a business process

Standard Task(TS) Single step Customer Task(T) Tasks Workflow Template(WS) Multistep Workflow Task(WF)

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Similarities and differences of task types

Customer Task (Type T) Workflow Task (Type WF) Created by customer customer With validity period Client-dependent Must be linked to its possible possible agents when it is defined

Standard Task (Type TS) Workflow Template (Type WS) Created by SAP and Without validity period Client-independent Must be linked to its agents when it is defined

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Single and Multistep Tasks
Transaction : PFTC Menu Path -> Tools -> Business Workflow -> Development -> Definition tools ->Tasks

Single step

References one object type method and displays one step in the business process

Tasks
Represents the business process and is a sequence of individual tasks and control steps
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Multistep

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Single-step tasks
ƒ Single-step tasks describe elementary business activities.

ƒ Single-step tasks operate on an object and refer to one object method each

ƒ Single-step tasks are linked to their possible and permitted agents whose organizational assignments are described in the organizational plan of the enterprise.

ƒ Executable single-step tasks are represented by work items at runtime.

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Workflow definition - Multistep tasks
ƒ A workflow definition has a modular structure consisting of individual steps which are linked together. The multistep tasks form the business framework for a workflow definition and each references one workflow definition. A step in a workflow definition can be an activity. An activity always refers to one task (= single-step task or multistep task). An activity with one simple triangle refers to a task. An activity with three triangles refers to a workflow (subworkflow).

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ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

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Task Definition – Synchronous and Asynchronous Methods

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Defining a Task

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Settings for Tasks
Task executed in background depending on object method At runtime user can create attachments User explains explicitly that work item is no longer is to be processed Confirm end of processing

Background SAPphones

The workflow dials the telephone number attached to the current customer
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Important Task Attributes
 General -Workitems can be executed and forwarded to any SAP User  General Forwarding Allowed -Workitems can be forwarded to any user  General Forwarding Not Allowed -Work items can be forwarded to possible users  Forwarding not allowed -No forwarding allowed

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Work Item
ƒ Executable single-step tasks are represented by work items at runtime. ƒ Object that represents a task or action in the workflow system at runtime. ƒ Depending on the work item type, some of these work items are displayed in a user's work list. Other work items, on the other hand, are only used and processed internally. ƒ The work items are displayed in the integrated inboxes of their selected agents, and can be reserved and executed from there.

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Work Items Types

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Workitem Types
W: Dialog work item Runtime display for a single step task with a user dialog D: Missed deadline work item The message recipient for the missed deadline is informed. F: Workflow work item Runtime representation of a multi step task B: Background work item Runtime display for a task executed in the background. E: Wait step work item: Runtime display for a wait step in the workflow definition.

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Workitem Text

ƒ Title of workitem in the Business Workplace ƒ First create the workitem text and position the cursor to include a varible ƒ Choose the 'Insert variable' icon under the workitem text

Example
Processes request from &_WI_Object_ID.CreatedBy&

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Task and its various component in SAP

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Business Object Definition and Implementation

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Object Types & Workflow
ƒ SAP Business Workflow has been developed on an objectoriented basis. ƒ The business object types are identified and described with their object methods in the Business Object Repository(BOR) of the R/3 System. ƒ Generally one object is created in the system and then processed in a workflow over several steps by various employees.

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Object Types & Objects
 Workflow deals with object types. Object types are definitions of data. In order to access database data, workflow uses the object type interface.  Most of the information represented by object types is available in the ABAP/4 Dictionary.

 Objects are created at runtime and are specific instances of
defined object types.  Many object types are delivered by SAP. In addition, the customer can create new object types or extend SAP objects by creating subtypes (child objects). New customer objects or subtypes may be desired if the delivered SAP object does not contain all the characteristics (attributes) or processing options (methods) desired.

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Object Type - Definition

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Interfaces
 Interfaces are a combination of attributes, methods, and events to be used in common among multiple object types. The purpose of interfaces is to define common functionality in one object type, and to assign that common functionality via an interface to multiple object types across the Business Object Repository. This avoids redundancy of data and functionality definition. Each new object type automatically receives the interface IFSAP, the SAP standard interface. IFSAP provides every object type with the following: - Method Display - Method ExistenceCheck - Attribute ObjectType

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Key Fields
Key fields are designed to uniquely identify the object type.

If the key field has a data type reference of a dictionary table field, the runtime system will look to that table field to retrieve the value of the key when processing the object. When the key field is created, the ABAP/4 program code is generated automatically when the object type is generated.

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Attributes
Attributes provides access to data. ABAP Dictionary Field Virtual

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Methods
Methods incorporate the permitted functions available for an object. Methods have importing and exporting parameters as well as exceptions. Methods can be created using :

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Methods
t ul es R

Import Parameters

METHOD

Export Parameters

io io pt pt ce s ce s Ex n Ex n
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Methods - Call attributes
–Dialog / or background : Execution of the method is via a work item in a user’s integrated inbox or in background by the workflow runtime system. Background methods cannot use messages or exceptions because they cannot be processed by the background system and will result in termination of the program. –Synchronous / Asynchronous
•Synchronous

methods finish executing before handing control back to the calling program. These types of methods can return export parameters, results and exceptions. Asynchronous methods do not return control to the calling program immediately. Once executed, they depend upon events to communicate the results of the method back to the calling program. Asynchronous object methods cannot have results, export parameters or exceptions.
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Methods - Call attributes
Result: Synchronous methods may return an export parameter as a result. A result can be defined like a dictionary field or an object type .
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Instance independence: Indicates whether an object reference is passed to the method by binding at the time of execution. Methods that generate and return an object reference, such as Create, or methods that generate a report listing should be instance independent.

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Import /Export Parameters
•The method parameter container contains references to all import, export and result parameters which need to be exchanged back and forth between the calling program (single-step task) and the method. Binding is necessary between the single-step task and the method parameter container to accomplish the data transfer. •Import parameters are those values which are necessary to execute the method. Import parameters are retrieved from the container CONTAINER using the macro instructions SWC_GET_ELEMENT (single-line) or SWC_GET_TABLE (multiline). •Export parameter values are passed to the container CONTAINER using the macro instructions SWC_SET_ELEMENT (single-line) or SWC_SET_TABLE (multiline). The result parameter is passed to the CONTAINER element RESULT via the same macro instructions.

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Exceptions
•Error handling is accomplished through the use of method exceptions (synchronous methods only). •The workflow definition can branch according to these possible error states and allow for subsequent steps to handle these conditions. Messages and exceptions cannot be used with background methods because they will terminate the program. •Number of the exception: •0001-1000: exceptions defined for interfaces •1001-7999: application-specific exceptions (free for SAP development) •8000-8999: exceptions raised by the object manager •9000-9999: exceptions defined by the customer (free for customers)

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Exceptions
•Exceptions are implemented within a method, between the macro instructions BEGIN_METHOD and END_METHOD. –EXIT_RETURN Code Variable1 Variable2 Variable3 Variable4. •Code = the 4-digit number of the exception •Variable1 through Variable4 correspond to up to 4 variables which can be derived from the message issued with the exception. •The following exceptions (for temporary errors) are also available to allow exiting of the program: –EXIT_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND = object not found –EXIT_CANCELLED = cancelled by the user

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Events
Events describe the change in the status of an object. Workflow are usually started using events

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Object Type - Release Status
ƒ Not accessible at runtime.

ƒ Only in test or internal use, possibly unstable.

ƒ Released for use by the customer.

ƒ The functionality has been replaced. The old functionality is still supported for two releases.

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Subtype
The subtype inherits all attributes, methods and events of the supertype and is open for new customer-specific attributes, methods and events. The key fields of the supertype and subtype must be identical. This means that any methods and attributes defined on the parent can be executed and accessed on the child object.

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Delegation
Transaction: Menu Path: SW01 Tools  Business Workflow - Development - Definition tools - Business Object Builder - Settings - Delegate

This delegation is powerful because it lets you implement your own business logic without modifying any SAP code. As long as the objects are properly delegated, your method will be executed.

KNA1 Calling Program Method: Change password

ZKNA1 Method: Change password

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Objects in the workflow

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Business Object Repository (BOR)
Transaction: Menu Path: SW01 Tools  Tools - Business Workflow – Defination tool –Busniness Object Builder

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Containers and Bindings
- Workflow -

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Types of Containers

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Workflow Container
ƒ The workflow container contains workflow-specific system variables and other elements which are defined explicitly. ƒ As part of the definition of the workflow task, the import and export parameters of the workflow are defined as elements of the workflow container. ƒ When the workflow is defined in the workflow editor, elements can also be added to the workflow container. These elements are then "local variables" within a workflow definition and can be used, for example, to set up a counting loop.
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Task Container
ƒ Each task container already contains the workflow system variable and any additional elements for the method parameters of the referenced object method. ƒ You have to add additional elements to the task container for additional values are required for variable replacement in the work item text or in the long texts

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Other Types of Containers
Event parameter container Contains an element which can take the (object) reference to the object whose change of status is announced via the event. Role parameter container Contains the elements required as input in connection with the role resolution to be run at runtime. Method parameter container Contains elements which will be required as import and export parameters in connection with the method execution.

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What is a Container?
Container Definition Container Instance R/3

• Field values • Multiline lists of field values • Object references Definition Runtime

Application Data

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Defining Container Elements

Element name Data type Description Multi-line Value reference Element Element Element 1 2 3 Database Field Database Field Object Type Definition Description Description Description 1 2 3

X X Runtime

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Binding
ƒ A binding is simply the art of of pouring selected container elements from one container into another. ƒ The binding editor is available when defining: Workflow definitions Triggering events Workflow steps Workflow steps ( Standard roles/ Object methods with parameters) ƒ The binding editor always references the container to receive the application data. Binding definitions can reference: Constants Variables (container elements) System fields

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Container & Dataflow
Workflow Container Task Method Event Role Container Container Container Container
2 3 6 7 11 4

1

triggering event
5

sync task sync task
8 9

sync metho d sync metho d

10

role
13

12 15
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async task

async metho d 14

terminating event
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Container Data Structure

SWC_CONTAINER

Declare Container

SWC_CREATE_CONTAINER

Initialize Container

SWC_RELEASE_CONTAINER

Release Container

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Writing/Reading Container Elements Defined as Field Values
Container Instance Variable Variable Internal Table Internal Table SWC_GET_ELEMENT SWC_SET_ELEMENT SWC_GET_TABLE SWC_SET_TABLE SWC_DELETE_ELEME NT
delete value

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Writing to Container Elements Defined as Object Types
Container Instance: CONTAINER Object Element: MATRL

Declare a variable as the key of your object: DATA: MATNR LIKE MARA-MATNR. Fill the key with a value: MATNR = ‘123456’. Declare a variable as an object: DATA: MATERIAL TYPE SWC_OBJECT.

Create an instance of your object in your program: SWC_CREATE_OBJECT MATERIAL ‘MARA’ MATNR.
Object type from B.O.R. Key of object you previously defined

ransfer value of your object instance to the container element: SWC_SET_ELEMENT CONTAINER ‘MATNR’ MATERIAL
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Reading Container Elements Defined as Object Types
Declare a variable as an object: DATA: MATERIAL TYPE SWC_OBJECT. Read value of container element to your object: SWC_GET_ELEMENT CONTAINER ‘MATRL’ MATERIAL. Declare a variable as the key of your object: DATA: MATNR LIKE MARA-MATNR. Read the object type key into your variable: SWC_GET_OBJECT_KEY MATERIAL MATNR. Declare a variable to hold the object type: DATA: OBJTYPE LIKE SWOTOBJID-OBJTYPE. Obtain the object type from your object type variable: SWC_GET_OBJECT_TYPE MATERIAL OBJTYPE.
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Container Instance: CONTAINER

Object Element: MATRL

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Writing to Container Elements Defined as Multiline Object Types
Declare a variable as an internal table object: DATA: REQITEMS TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0. Since this internal table has no header, declare a work area: DATA: REQITEM TYPE SWC_OBJECT. Declare key fields of the object (e.g. called PREQKEY) and fill them (e.g. within a select loop). Create an instance of your object for each table line: SWC_CREATE_OBJECT REQITEM ‘BUS2009’ PREQKEY. Append the object instance to the internal table: APPEND REQITEM TO REQITEMS. Once the internal table is filled, transfer the internal table to the multiline container element: SWC_SET_TABLE CONTAINER ‘PRItems’ REQITEMS.
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Container Instance: CONTAINER

Element: PRItems

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Reading Container Elements Defined as Multiline Object Types
Read value of multiline container element into your internal table object: SWC_GET_TABLE CONTAINER ‘PRItems’ REQITEMS. Declare your object: DATA: REQITEM TYPE SWC_OBJECT. Declare a variable to hold the object type: DATA: OBJTYPE LIKE SWOTOBJID-OBJTYPE. Loop through your internal table object REQITEMS into individual REQITEM entries. Perform operations as needed. Use this macro to get the keys of each entry: SWC_GET_OBJECT_KEY REQITEMS PREQKEY Use this macro to get the object type of each entry: SWC_GET_OBJECT_TYPE REQITEMS OBJTYPE.
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Container Instance: CONTAINER

Object Element: PRItems

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Events

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Event
 An event describes a possible status change for an object in the SAP System. Before an event can be used in a workflow, it must be defined in the Business Object Repository for the object type. Events must be triggered explicitly. The application itself can be the triggering agent.

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Types of Event Creation

Change Document

Status Management

Message Control

Specific HR Tables

ABAP Code In User Exit

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Using Customizing for event trigger
Menu Path :Basic menu -> Tools -> Business Workflow -> Development -> Definition tools -> Events

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Event Creation of Change Document

Changing Master data

Change logged using change documents

Event creation (SWEC)

Event linkage is done to connect to the workflow/ task

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Event Creation of Status Management

Status Management

Event creation (BSVW )

Event linkage is done to connect to the workflow/ task

When user status changes to E002 , event is triggered
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Event Creation of Message Control
Triggering an event using message control occurs with NAST.
Create Message type and define workflow as transmission medium Create Condition Table Create Access Sequence Assign Access Sequence to defined message type Define Condition Records Assign message type To procedure
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Maintain the processing program RSWEMC01 with the FORM routine CREATE_EVENT for the output type EVEN and transmission medium 9.

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Using ABAP Code
This is using done by writing custom code e.g. by using SAP FM like SWE_EVENT_CREATE inside user exits, BADI etc.
CALL FUNCTION 'SWE_EVENT_CREATE' EXPORTING OBJTYPE = OBJTYPE OBJKEY = OBJKEY EVENT = EVENT CREATOR = APPLICANT START_WITH_DELAY = ' ' IMPORTING EVENT_ID = EVENTID TABLES EVENT_CONTAINER = CONTAINER EXCEPTIONS OBJTYPE_NOT_FOUND = 01. IF SY-SUBRC = 0. COMMIT WORK. ENDIF.
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Event Creators, Receivers and Event Linkage
Anybody want this event?

Event Published Events Linkage

Receivers
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Creator
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Type Linkage Entry
Transaction: SWE2 Menu Path :Basic menu -> Tools -> Business Workflow -> Utilities > Other tools >Event linkage

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Event Trace
Transaction: SWEL Menu Path :Basic menu -> Tools -> Business Workflow -> Development -> Utilities -> Events -> Event Trace.

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Organisational Structure

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Organizational Structure Business Scenario
ƒ An organizational plan in SAP describes the organizational structure of a company. ƒ The workflow system finds the agents of the individual tasks by evaluating the organizational plan ƒ The functions to create and maintain organizational plans are part of the Personnel Planning and Development (PD) part of the SAP HR module ƒ You must connect this organizational structure to the workflow

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Organizational Management
ƒ Organizational units contain positions, occupied by employees. ƒ Jobs are abstract descriptions of task assignments. ƒ Positions can be linked to jobs. They inherit all the tasks assigned to that job. ƒ Users. A user is an SAP logon user ID. It thus represents a single person. ƒ Persons. A person is a specific employee created in the HR module. ƒ Workflow tasks can be assigned to organizational units, positions, jobs or users. ƒ The workflow system uses organizational structure to route work items to the correct recipients
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Create Organisational Plan
Transaction: Menu Path: PPOCW Tools  Business Workflow - Development - Environment - Organizational Management Simple Maintenance – Org plan basic data - Create Create root organizational unit Create Executive Board

Additional organizational units Create jobs Create positions Assign Holders Assign tasks
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Create Sales region , Production Administrator , Sales Manager Sales Manager – eastern Zone

Create Sales Order
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Assigment Workflow Task Organizational Objects
Organizational unit: FI department Position: Head of FI depatment Manager job User 1 Job for secretary Position: Secretary User 2 Position: FI administrator 1 Task Task

User 3 Job for FI employee Task

Position: FI administrator 2 User 2

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Agent Assignment and Role Resolution
- Workflow -

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Agent
 ƒ ƒ Agent is an executor of a work item. Agent is responsible for executing a task in a workflow. Agent is determined by the system either through organizational chart or directly if user is assigned as agent for a particular task. If the agents of the individual workflow steps are determined using the customer-specific organizational chart, your agent assignment in the workflow remains flexible to change.

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Types of Agents
Possible agents are a collection of agents who qualify to execute a work item

Processing Agents Deadline Agents Notification Agents

Selected agents are those possible agents who are elected to execute a task at runtime

Actual agent is the agent among those selected agents who actually processes the work item
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Role Resolution
A role defines rules by which selected agents can be determined at runtime through role resolution. Role resolution restricts the number of possible agents.

Role Resolution

List of possible agents (executors) of a task (All supervisors in a dept.)
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Role = Rules (Supervisor of User PBACON)

Selected Agent(s) (Mr. Banning)
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Standard Rules
A rule container is defined for each rule. The rule parameters determine which information is required for the rule resolution to be executed at runtime. If an error occurs during rule resolution, setting the termination indicator for the rule resolution determines how the workflow will continue: Flag is selected - the workflow assumes an Error status and a notification is sent to the workflow administrator. Indicator is not activated - the workflow forwards this work item to ALL possible agents.

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Rule Basics
Transaction : PFAC_INS(Create) Menu Path: Tools – Business Workflow – Development – Definition tools – Rules for Agent Assignment – Create/Change/Display.

Each rule gets a 8 digit generated by the system prefixed with AC Rules can be tested using PFTC or by function module ‘RH_GET_ACTORS’

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Rule Definition in a Activity Step Type
Various options to create standard rules : 3. Responsibility (Pure configuration no ABAP coding)  Defined Value ranges are assigned to Agents  Data is filled from workflow container at runtime   Evalution paths (Pure configuration no ABAP coding) Organizational data (Pure configuration no ABAP coding)  Jobs , positions

6. Functions to be executed – ABAP Code – Function Module

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Rule Definition with Responsibility: Example
Employee Names A-K
Jones Smith

Mr. Miller Position : Administrator HR

George Peter

Anna Michael

David Ross William

Mr. Andrew Position : Administrator HR

Employee Names L-Z

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Rule Definition with Responsibility: Example
Rules Container Definition
Container Element Element Data Type Uname Name Name

Areas of Responsibility
Value From A* L* Which Value? From To K* Z* Name Employees from A-Z Employees from L-Z Which Agent Mr. Andrew Mr. Miller

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Evaluation path as Rule
Transaction : OOAW Menu Path:

Evaluation path describes how to find one or more organizational objects based On an initial organizational units Example
Evaluation path WF_ORGUN WF_ORGUS US_CHEF SAP_HOLD Meaning Get organization unit for a user id/person id All users of a organization unit,job, position Superiors of a users Holder of a position

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Evaluation path as Rule contd.
Here are the basic steps: 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Determine the evaluation path that needs to be used Create a rule setting the type ‘Function to be executed’. Enter function module RH_GET_STRUCTURE Enter the evaluation path determined in step 1 above Following rule container needs to be created

Name OTYPE OBJID ORG_AGENT

Data type ref OBJEC-OTYPE OBJEC_REALO WFSYST_AGENT

Description Type of organizational management object ID of organizational management object Organizational management object

Example US SMITH USSMITH

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Role Resolution with Function Modules
Role resolution with function module should be done only for complex criteria Here are the basic steps: 4. A function module with the following interface is created
Parameter Type Table Table Exception Name AC_CONTAINER ACTOR_TAB NOBODY_FOUND Data Type Ref SWCONT SWHACTOR Meaning Incoming rule container Outgoing list of agents in agent format Exception indication no agents found

1. 2. 3.

Create a rule setting the type ‘Function to be executed’. Enter the created function module name Create container elements.

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Execution of a Role Resolution via Organizational Objects
Via organizational objects: Role resolution utilizing organizational data analyses the assignment of an organizational object (plant, laboratory, MRP controller, planner group, shipping point, sales office) to a position or organizational unit. Plant Laboratory Sales Office

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Tasks: Possible Agents & Default Roles

Possible agents
User Position Job Org. Unit Person

Default role
Business Workplace

TASK

The workplace displays the work items for a agent

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How are Selected Agents Determined With and Without a Default Role?
Possible Agents

Triggering Event Task definition with no default role Task definition with default role

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How are Selected Agents Determined With a WF Agent?
Triggering Event Task definition with no default role Task definition with default role Step definition at workflow defn. level with an agent specified. This overrides default role at task defn. level

All possible agents who qualify to execute task

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Workflow and ALE

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Workflow and ALE
 Error Notification  Active Monitoring  IDOC Processing  Notification of successful posting

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Workflow and Error Notification
B u s in e s s U s e r A n a ly s is

E x c e p tio n R a is e d

D e te r m in e R e c ip ie n ts

U s e r/G ro u p g e t s n o t if ie d v ia a w o r k ite m

U s e r c h e c k s in b o x a n d e x e c u te s th e w o r k ite m

R e s ta rt th e p ro c e s s

F ix th e e r r o r

Yes

C a n e rro r b e f ix e d ?
N o

End

P u rg e th e ID o c

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ALE error handling
User action R/3 action

Error in inbound function module ALE triggers error event
input Error Occurred

Workitem appears in user's Inbox Execute Workitem Display IDoc for user processing (IDoc method "InputForeground") Fix error and reprocess IDoc or Flag IDoc for deletion ALE triggers end event
input Finished

Workitem completed

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ALE error handling- Example
The example below of an inbound error for a material master message shows the steps in ALE error handling: 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The inbound function module passes message to the ALE layer that an error has occurred. ALE triggers the object event "inputErrorOccurred" from the IDCOMATMAS category. This event is linked to standard task number 00007947, "MATMAS_inbound error“ A work item appears in the user’s inbox, the work item’s short text is the first fifty characters of the error message contained in the IDoc’s status record. When the user processes the work item, the IDOCMATMAS method "IDOC.InputForeground" is processed. IDoc status record is displayed and the user can display the error message's long text. If the user was able to remedy the error, the IDoc can be submitted for updating. If the error cannot be remedied, the user can flag the IDoc for deletion. If the IDoc was either successfully submitted or flagged for deletion, IDOCMATMAS’s event "inputFinished" is triggered indicating that the task has been carried out.
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Active Monitoring
Active monitoring allows to specify threshold values for the state of the system For e.g threshold can be on the number of IDocs in error or the time limit Report Program RSEIDOCA can be executed periodically  Selection screen takes as input the threshold values and persons to be notified  When defined threshold is exceeded Single Step Task TS30200088 is executed

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Setting up Inbound Process via Workflow
    The standard system can be configured to start a WF for an incoming IDoc. Useful when review is essential before posting Custom. SAP does not deliver standard. The settings are: --Create the custom task or WF --Create a new process Code ( WE42) and attach this custom WF/Task. --In the Partner Profile, attach the new Process code

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Notification of Successful Posting
 The ALE/EDI interface can raise events on successful posting of an IDOC. The settings are: --Identify the Appl.Obj created by the Idoc. Txn: WE57 --Identify the event that needs to be raised. --Go to BD67, select Process code and populate Object type and Event. --Identify/Create tasks/WF and enable event linkage.

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Business Workflow Customization
- Workflow -

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Workflow Customizing - SWU3

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