Human Resource Research

Introduction
• Science is the discovery and description of regularities in the universe. Research helps us to develop theories in these regularities. • The same holds true for HR Research too.

Research Defined
• According to Chambers Twentieth Century dictionary, ‘research is a systematic investigation towards increasing the sum of knowledge’. • It is a scientific endeavor. • It explores unknown facts and unknown application of theory.

HR Research
• Through the process of identification , critical examination, and dissemination of useful practical experiences; HR research helps us to develop relevant approaches for successful management of organization.

Features:
• It requires systematic development and acquisition of knowledge. • It is tailored to specific management needs to answer specific questions within a given framework.

Purpose:
• Human Resource attempts to understand how organizations are structured and how they function. • The practice of decision making • The factors that affect organizational operations • The strategies that contribute to the enhancement of strategic advantage of an organization

Different Approaches To HR Research
• Pure Basic Research: It intends to resolves, illuminate, and exemplify a theoretical issue. Therefore the basic purpose of this approach is to enhance knowledge and understanding. Eg: Management Theories

• Objective Research: It focuses on how to overcome a general problem in the application of established knowledge. It is, however, not intended to solve a specific management problem. Eg: To find out the reason for Attrition Rate

• Evaluative Research: It assesses some aspects of the organizational function by analyzing the effectiveness of a given problem. It can be used to analyze issues such as the effects of performance-linked pay over fixed pay on workers.

• Applied Research:

This kind of research solves a particular problem within the organization by application of appropriate knowledge.
HR researchers may apply their existing knowledge of leadership to identify the most appropriate leadership style for knowledge workers in organization.

• Action Research: It refers to a particulars kind of research where the solution of a problem is both an outcome and a part of the research process. Eg: Welfare Activities

Concept Mapping For HR Research
• For conducting effective HR management research, it is necessary to explore knowledge, and to gather and share information. • A concept map is a special diagram and is used as a formative assessment and research tool.

• The purpose of concept-mapping is to form or assess the cognitive map of a person or an organization using a diagram. It shows relationships between concepts. • For effective HR management research, concept-mapping helps in the following ways:

• It develops an understanding of a body of knowledge. • It explores new information and relationships. • It gives access to prior knowledge. • It helps in gathering new and information generated. • It designs structures or processes. • It deals with problem-solving.

Steps In Concept-Mapping
1. Prepare Project

6. Utilize Maps

2.Generate Ideas

Steps In ConceptMapping
5. Interpret Maps 3.Structure Ideas

4. Compute Maps

• • • •

Literature Review On HR Research Model Building In HR Research Significance Of HR Research Kinds OF HR Research
– Applied vs Basic Research – Exploratory vs Confirmatory – Quantitative vs Qualitative

• Sampling For HR Research
– Basic Sampling Method – Systematic Sampling – Stratified Sampling – Cluster Sampling

• Questionnaire and Survey • Using Statistical tests In HR research • Computer-Aided Research In HR
– SPSS – WINKS – Statistica 7 – AMOS – SYSTAT – LISREL

• Presentation Of HR Reports
– Consider the audience – Be concise, but precise – Understanding the results and drawing conclusions

HR Research Tools & Techniques
• Quantitative Research (descriptive research, correlation research, cause –comparative research & experimental research) • Qualitative Research (historical research, it plays important role in impact evaluation & assessing changes in employee’s perceptions)

Important aspect in HR Research-Reliability & Validity • Reliability refers to the reproducibility of a measurement. • Validity refers to the agreement between the value of a measurement & its true value.

Human Resource Planning Research
• In HRP research, it is necessary to understand various applications of industrial engineering techniques ( work study, method study & work measurement techniques). • These techniques provide opportunity for effective use of plant & equipment, effective use of human efforts, measurement of human work, better ways of doing things, developing pre-determined standard time, etc. • Its primary objective is to integrate planning & control of manpower with the organizational planning to ensure best possible utilization of all resources.

Compensation Research
• Researchers attempted to explain variations in executive compensation by using the ‘ sales maximization’ hypothesis. It states that as firms grow ,owners become dispersed & have trouble in monitoring management. • Managing compensation involves two main issues: controlling costs& leveraging pay. • Managing pay equity is managing employee perception1.Categorize employees by pay. 2.Compare pay to the labor market. 3.Manage internal equity. 4.Link pay with job performance. 5.Communicate how pay works.

Motivational Research in Organization
• Most of the research works tried to focus on correct reinforces for employee motivation, based on survey – based investigation, using scaled closed-ended questionnaire. • The rank order of motivating factors are– – – – – – – A) interesting work b) good wages c) full appreciation of work d) job security e) good working conditions f) promotion &growth in the organization g) personal loyalty to employees ,etc.

• First Phase-to identify need deficiency of employees, if any. Need deficiency centre around extrinsic & intrinsic needs. • Second Phase-organization try to identify appropriate strategy to close the perceived need gap of employees. • Employee Motivation Research Techniques • Motivational surveys are usually very helpful in establishing whether employees in an organization are motivated & therefore performing their best. (Experimental research done by Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Studies)

Training & Development Research
• It primarily covers following areas• Evaluation of training using tools like assessment through questionnaire response, various evaluation models, quantitative tools & metrics. • Training needs assessment. Determines the value of training • Training design. • Training evaluation determines the value of training through a systematic process. In training evaluation research issues, we try to focus on cause-&-effect relationship between training & performance: using various quantitative, qualitative measurement tools & linking training to business results through return on investment.

Training Evaluation Design Model
Corporate/strategic: Strategy, objectives, management plans What are you trying to achieve by doing this?

What is required To achieve this?

Operational structure System, resources activities

Individual Skills, Knowledge Motivation, Performance

Performance Management & Research
• Research on performance management is most challenging are for HR professional. • Such research will not only guide the organization to select the appropriate performance tools but also will give direction for proper HR interventions to ensure that organizations remain globally competitive.

Six-Sigma

• Six Sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1981. As of 2010, it enjoys widespread application in many sectors of industry, although its application is not without controversy.

Six-Sigma
• Six-sigma as a business process is now allowing organizations to improve their bottom line by designing & monitoring business activities in a way that minimizes wastes & resources without compromising on customer satisfaction.
• Six-sigma recreates the processes to ensure defects never arise right from the beginning.

Methods
• Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle. These methodologies, comprising five phases each, bear the acronyms DMAIC and DMADV.

• DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control )is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process. • DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Verify) is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs.

Six-Sigma Practices in HR Research
• From organization’s point of view it provides maximum value in the form of increased profits, whereas from customer view, it provide maximum value in terms of high quality products & services at competitive costs.

• Higher sigma values indicate better quality products. At six-sigma level, products are virtually defect-free i.e. only 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO)

The six-sigma Map
• • • Stages Identification Characterization Strategy Phase Recognize& define Measure& analyze Objectives to identify key business issues To understand level of current performance

Optimization

Improve & Control

To initiate breakthrough improvement

Institutionalization

Standardize & integrate

To transform day to day conduct of business

Six-Sigma In HR

• Six-sigma approach in HR research enables an organization to develop quick responses to critical HR issues, Identifying the bottlenecks & introducing the improved HR processes.

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