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Webinar
Peter R. Barrett, M.S.C.E., P.E.
© 2009 CAE Associates
What is CivilFEM?
CivilFEM is an integrated Pre , Solu  and Postprocessor addon to
traditional ANSYS developed by ANSYS’s Spain distributor
INGECIBER
AASHTO LRFD
Bridge Design Specifications 130
NSYS/CivilFEM
CANADA
110º 100º 120
50º
40º
30º
(Western USA)
2
A
Acceleration Coefficient
Seismic
Zone
MÉXICO
< 0.09 1
> 0.19 and <_ 0.29 3
>_ 0.29 4
INGECIBER CivilFEM Developer / ANSYS Partner
Ingeciber S.A. is a CAE company and ANSYS Channel Partner
with more than 20 years of experience using and developing
CAE Software
Ingeciber’s Quality Assurance System is ISO 9001 certified.
Ansys, Inc and Ingeciber, S.A. have a long standing OEM
Agreement and established a strategic alliance for FEA solutions
in the construction industry. Some worldwide Customers:
3
ANSYS Today
World’s Largest Simulation Community
>10,000 Total Customers
>125 000 Commercial Seats
>6,000 Total Customers
>60 000 Commercial Seats
>2,000 To tal Customers
>10,000 Commercial Seats ,
>140,000 University Seats
> 200 Channel Partners
> 75 Industry Partners
,
>70,000 University Seats
>20 Channel Partners
>80 Industry Partners
4
ANSYS/CivilFEM
ANSYS/CivilFEM combines the world leading general
purpose structural analysis features of ANSYS (ISO9001)
with highend civil engineeringspecific structural analysis
capabilities of CivilFEM (ISO9001).
Current Customers include: AREVA, AECOM, Parsons,
Leslie E. Robinson, Westinghouse
5
CivilFEM & ANSYS
6
CivilFEM –Help
Interactive Online Help
Examples Manuals
Advanced Workshops
Training Courses
7
Current CivilFEM Distributors
8
CAE Associates, Inc.
» One of first 4 ANSYS
Channel Partners
÷ Since 1985…
» Engineering Co.
÷ Since 1981
9
CAE Associates – CivilFEM / ANSYS Partner
25 years Structural, Thermal and Fluid engineering consulting
One of the original ANSYS Channel partners
The US leader in ANSYS Finite Element Training
Custom Training of ANSYS and CivilFEM
10
Sampling of CAE Consulting Services
NIST – Structural Fire Response and Probable
Collapse Sequence of the World Trade Center
Towers Investigation
Steam Generator Replacement in Nuclear
Containment Buildings
Prestressed Concrete Pipe Simulation
Concrete Dam simulation to meet
FERC /Corps of Engineers licensing
11
CAE Associates Senior Technical Staff
Nicholas M. Veikos, Ph.D., President
Peter R. Barrett, M.S.C.E., P.E., Vice President
Michael Bak, Ph.D., Project Manager
Patrick Cunningham, M.S.M.E., Project Manager
Steven Hale, M.S.M.E., Project Manager
James Kosloski, M.S.M.E., Project Manager
HsinHua Tsuei, Ph.D., CFD Manager
Jonathan Masters, Ph.D., Project Manager
George Bauer, M.S.M.E., Project Manager
Eric Stamper, M.S.M.E., Project Manager
Michael Kuron, M.S.M.E., Project Engineer
Lawrence L. Durocher, Ph.D., Director
12
ANSYS Strengths
Nonlinear Stress Analysis
— Contact
— Plasticity
— Creep
— Large Deflection – PDelta Effects
— Element Birth and Death
Full Element Library (over 200)
— Beams, Pipes & Shells
— 2D and 3D Solids
— Springs, Contact, etc
Dynamic Analysis
— Response Spectrum
— Nonlinear Transient Dynamics
ThermalStress Analysis
— Indirect and direct coupled field simulations
Large Model Simulations
— Solvers, meshing, Postprocessing, Graphics
13
ANSYS Strengths – Development 12.0
14
CivilFEM Strengths
CivilFEM Capabilities
— Entire suite of ANSYS capabilities including nonlinear analysis
and dynamics
— Builtin Section Properties, Material Models and Code Checking
Industry Specific CivilFEM Modules
— Nonlinear Bridge Simulation
— Prestressed Concrete
— Geotechnical Applications
— Nuclear Applications
15
CivilFEM
Geotechnical
Module
Introduction
The geotechnical module is one of 4 addon ANSYS CivilFEM modules
— Geotechnical, Nonlinear Bridge, Advanced Prestress, and Nuclear
The ~CFACTIV command is used to activate and deactivate each module.
~CFACTIV,GETC,Y
17
Geotechnical Capabilities Summary
Materials library (soils and rocks)
Layered terrains
Soil foundation stiffness (ballast module)
Retaining wall design / analysis
Seepage analysis
Slope stability analysis
Tunneling Hoek & Brown failure criteria
Earth pressures
Terrain Initial Stress
Foundation Piles
18
Geotechnical Materials
~CFMP command.
— This command defines the soil or rock material properties in ANSYS
and CivilFEM.
— It can be applied using one of the following options:
• From library: reads from the library the material properties for a given
material reference.
~CFMP,1,LIB,SOIL,,...
~CFMP,1,LIB,ROCK,,...
• User defined: the material looses its library reference and the user can
change any of its properties.
~CFMP,1, USER
• Material Include Standard ANSYS as well as unique CivilFEM Materials
19
Soil Material Properties
Soil Library
~CFMP,1,LIB,SOIL,,...
Material
number
Soil
classification
according to
Casagrand
Delete materials
Modify selected
material
List of defined
materials
Save materials
Copy materials
20
Rock Material Properties
Rocks library
~CFMP,1,LIB,ROCK,,...
Material
number
Rock
classifications
Copy materials
Save materials
Delete materials
Modify selected
material
List of defined
materials
21
Geotechnical Material Wizard
22
Soil and Rock Material Properties
Soil /Rock properties are divided into 7 different groups:
— General properties:
• common for all the materials (number, reference, type,…)
— Structural analysis properties: .
• Static and dynamic properties, material behavior, etc.
— Specific weight properties:
• specific weight, density, porosity, etc.
— Properties:
• test parameters, materials laws, etc.
— Grainsize or Hoek & Brown properties :
• grainsize parameters and Atterberg limits or Hoek & Brown & Dilatancy parameters
— Correlations:
• relationships between geotechnical parameters.
— FLAC3D:
• Flac3D properties.
— Soil Menu
— Rock Menu
23
Soil and Rock Material Properties
Structural Analysis
properties are divided
into:
— Elasticity modulus,
Poisson ratio and
density used for the
structural analysis.
— Plastic behavior
— Static properties
— Seismic properties
24
Soil and Rock Material Properties
Specific Weight
properties are divided
into:
— Specific weights
— Density
— Porosity
— Water content
25
Soil and Rock Material Properties
Material Properties are
divided into:
— Test properties
— MohrCoulomb parameters
— DruckerPrager parameters
— MohrCoulomb in plain
strain models parameters
— Earth pressure data
— Seepage
26
Soil and Rock Material Properties
Grainsize properties are grouped into:
— Grainsize parameters
— Atterberg limits
These properties are
only defined for soils
27
Soil and Rock Material Properties
Hoek & Brown properties are grouped into:
— Hoek & Brown parameters
— Dilatancy parameters
These properties are
only defined for rocks
28
Soil and Rock Material Properties
The correlations can be selected from the CivilFEM library or from a user
defined file.
Select between CivilFEM
correlations or user defined
Relates the SPT value
with the elasticity
module applying the
correlation to the
specified property
Apply
29
Correlations
User defined correlations
5 Correlation
number
6 Function
International
System
UNITS
7 Comment
(Optional)
The right hand menu
assists in writing a
correlation
4 Select new
correlation
30
Example  Cap DruckerPrager Model
Cap DruckerPrager plasticity model applicable to
— Simulation granular materials such as soils
— Introduce cap for both tension and compression
— Include cap hardening
— Include shear envelope hardening
31
CivilFEM – Soil Materials – Example Help
32
Terrain
Layered Terrain Definition
Terrain
Number of
layers.
(Maximum,
20)
number name
Pitch
Terrain
general
properties
Location
Water
Table
Thickness
SurfaceLoad
Layer
Properties
Layer
number
Material
Horizontal Ballast
Module
Coulomb theory
for earth
pressure
calculation
33
Layered Terrains Definition
Allows the definition of soils without having to discretize them as finite
elements in the model.
New Terrain
Modify selected Terrain
Delete Terrain
Copy Terrain
Properties list
34
Earth Pressures,
Ballast Module, Soil
Foundation Stiffness
Automated Earth Pressures
CivilFEM Model:
Earth column contribution over this point
— At rest earth pressure
— Active earth pressure
— Passive earth pressure
i=n
E
0
= K
0 ¿
¸
i
h
i
+ K
0
· q
i=1
— The soil weight on the selected elements of the model.
— Dry and flooded earth
ELEMENT TYPES:
1
1
— Beams
— Shells
— Solids
Y
— Surface elements:
3D BEAM ELEMENTS
5
2
5
SHELL ELEMENTS
Z X Y
Z X
x z
2
1
3
x
y
z
4
6
y
4
3
1
36
Earth Pressures
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURES CALCULATION:
Calculated considering:
— Earth column contribution over this point.
— Cohesion
— Surface load over the terrain.
q
2
q ·
L
1
+ L
2
c ·
L
1
+ L
2
+ K
2
¸ h + ¸ L

+ K E = K
hq hc n 1


i=n÷1
\ i=1 .
h
¿ i i

h
1
h
2
Layer
2
Layer
1
K
h
: Horizontal earth pressure
coefficient due to the earth weight
h
n1
Layer
n1
L
1
K
hc
: Horizontal earth pressure
coefficient due to cohesion
K
hq
: Horizontal earth pressure
coefficient due to the surface load
E
Layer
n
L
2
L + L
2 2
2
37
Ballast Module
CivilFEM calculates an estimation value of the ballast module (soil
foundation stiffness), that allows approximating the elastic soil model
(E and v) by means of Winkler’s model (beam on an elastic
foundation).
Calculation steps:
1. Model definition (materials,
elements, beam & shell
properties)
2. Terrain’s definition
3. Select the elements and nodes
that make up the foundation
4. Ballast module calculation
5. Ballast module application
38
Ballast Module
Calculates the ballast module for a foundation previously defined by the
user. The elements and nodes that make up the foundation must be
selected beforehand.
~EFSCALC, UCIM, UTER
Enter foundation
and terrain
numbers
39
Ballast Module: Results
Plot and list results
Close the
window
Element
results
Node
results
Foundation
not created List
results
Activated
foundation
Deactivated
foundation
Results scale
40
Retaining Walls
Retaining Wall Calculation
Nonlinear Analysis
Construction Sequence
Automated Simulation changing with excavation level
It takes into account
the soilstructure
The wall may be
considered as a
interaction using
nonlinear springs
with contact elements
nonlinear structure
and analyzed by the
nonlinear module of
CivilFEM
42
Retaining Wall Calculation
Calculation of Sheet Piles 2D (automatic wizard) 3D
— Nonlinear construction sequence analysis
— One or two sheet piles can be analyzed simultaneously
— Simulation of anchors, water level, layered soils, other applied loads.
The excavation or
backfilling process can
be visualized in each
calculation step.
43
Retaining Wall Calculation
Calculation of Sheet Piles 2D (automatic wizard) 3D
— With any ANSYS/CivilFEM cross section
— Interaction with other structures
44
Retaining Wall Calculation
The systems generated may consist of one or two walls that can be
integrated inside other ANSYS models like a subset.
The model is solved by means of an evolving calculation, where each
calculation stage represents a step in excavation or backfill.
The reinforcement of the retaining walls can be later designed by
CivilFEM.
Applicable to any ANSYS/CivilFEM cross section
45
Retaining Walls: Modeling
The retaining wall is modeled with 2D
beam elements applying:
— Boundary conditions
— Actions
The interaction with the terrain is
simulated by the action of two pairs of
springs (LINK1 element) linked to
gaps (work in compression)
Each pair of springs is in charge of
reproducing :
— Passive earth pressure
— Active earth pressure
— (Earth Pressures described
previously)
46
Retaining Wall Modeling
PP
T1
PP
T2
AP
T1
AP
T2
Terrain 1 Terrain 2
Well graduated gravel
Silt
Peat (Low)
The soil is defined as layered terrain
Retaining Walls: Earth Pressure
Material behavior law
— The introduction of the material law for each spring is carried out using a
nonlinear elastic behavior model
(E
0
E
a
)
F
d
HBM
(E
p
E
0
)
47
Retaining Walls: Calculation Procedure
~WALLINI
Initializes the data in the retaining wall analysis
General
Properties
Wall 1
Properties
Wall 2
Properties
48
Retaining Walls: Calculation Procedure
~WALLGEN command
— Defines the elements forming the retaining wall:
— Material:
• Concrete
• Steel
— Type
— Real constant
— Section Length
~WALLGEN, IWALL, ISEC, LENGTH, MAT, TYPE, REAL
Wall
number
It is possible to use
any nonlinear behavior
in the Retaining Wall
49
Retaining Walls: Calculation Procedure
ANCHORAGE TYPES
Articulated
(ANCHTYPE = 1)
Fixed
(ANCHTYPE = 0)
The anchorage is
created as a beam
with one of its ends
fixed to the soil.
A support will be
placed on the wall.
The node will be
moved to its initial
location.
Delete
(ANCHTYPE = 1)
All anchorages at
Fixed with no
movement
restoring
the chosen level will
be deleted at this
construction step.
(ANCHTYPE = 2)
A support will be
placed on the wall.
50
Seepage Analysis
Seepage Analysis Capabilities
Calculate hydraulic heads and pore water pressures.
Calculate filtered flows through boundaries.
Obtain the water table for 2D models.
Export the obtained pore water pressure to slope stability analysis. The
finite element mesh used in both analysis can be different.
— Darcy’s law with anisotropy of the permeability coefficient (different
permeability in x, y, z directions).
c
H
v
=
 K
c
H
, v
=
 K
c
H
, v
=
 K
zz z y yy x xx
c
z
c
x
c
y
52
Seepage Analysis: Boundary Conditions
Impermeable surface:
Upstream surface: H = H
0
Seepage surface: H = geometric height
Downstream surface: H = H
1
y
=
0
c
n
c
H
Saturation surface
cH
H
0
A
cn
=0
0
Upstream surface
H(x,y) = H
Seepage surface
H(x,y) = y(x)
x
H
1
B
cH
=0
Downstream surface
H(x,y) = H
1
53
Impermeable surface
cn
Seepage Analysis: CivilFEM Elements (II)
Equivalence table of available element types
ANSYS Thermal Solver
for Seepage Analogy
CivilFEM Seepage Solver
54
CivilFEM SEEPAGE
Elements
ANSYS STRUCTURAL
Elements
ANSYS THERMAL
Elements
2D PLANE 42  SEEP PLANE 42 PLANE 55
3D SOLID 45  SEEP SOLID 45 SOLID 70
Seepage Analysis: CivilFEM Elements (III)
Building a model for CivilFEM seepage solver:
— The model is created using ANSYS structural elements
— Element types are automatically changed by the solver.
ANSYS/Structural Elements CivilFEM Elements
PLANE 42 PLANE 42 – SEEP
SOLID 45 SOLID 45 – SEEP
— Available degrees of freedom:
55
ANSYS D.O.F. CivilFEM D.O.F.
UX H (Hydraulic head)
UY Not Used
UZ Not Used
Seepage Analysis: CivilFEM Elements (IV)
K
L
x
I
J
y
I
J
4 n odes t r i a n g l e o p t i on
Degen er a t ed shape
x
y
Se c ond gr ade sh ape f u n c t i o n
Four no d es t w o di m ens i ona l e l e m en t
Triangular prism
M,N,O,P
Basi c shape
I
K,L
Tetrahedron
J
Three di m ensi on a l
56
Seepage Analysis: Saturation Line
DAM EXAMPLE:
The saturation line has two end points that must comply with the following
boundary conditions:
— a) Fixed: Point A in the figure
— b) Sliding along a seepage surface: Point B in the figure
t
y
Saturation line
H
0
y(x)
Seepage surface
A
x
H(x,y)=H
1
H(x,y)=y(x)
H
1
x
a
B
y
A
y
y
y
y
1
y
B
4 3
2
cH
c
n
= 0
cH
c
n
= 0
2D Seepage (Without drains)
57
Slope Stability
Slope Stability
Slope stability can be calculated by means of two methods, conceptually
different:
1. CLASSICAL METHODS
— Fellenius
— Bishop
— Simplified and Modified Janbu
2. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
— Equivalent results to the one obtained with classical methods.
59
Slope Stability
Fellenius’ Method (Swedish or independent slice method):
— Sliding surface: CIRCLE.
— Independent slices.
— Equilibrium of moments in relation to the circle center.
— Recommended: cohesive homogeneous materials.
— NON iterative process
— N calculation:
N = W coso ÷ kW sin o ± D
x
sin o ÷ D
y
coso
Bishop’s Method:
— Sliding surface: CIRCLE.
— Equilibrium of moments in relation to the circle center.
— Iterative process ÷ N depends on the safety factor F.
W ÷
cL sin o ÷ uL sin o tan ¢
÷ D
F
N =
y
F
60
coso +
sin o tan ¢
Slope Stability
Janbu’s Simplified Method:
— Sliding surface: ANY POLYGONAL.
— Forces equilibrium.
— Iterative process ÷ N calculation is the same as for the Bishop s method. ’
61
Slope Stability
2. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD:
Safety factor F =
¿
c + (o
n
÷ u)tg¢  . a
¿
t . a
o
n
= Normal stress on the bottom
of the slice
t = Tangential stress on the
bottom of the slice
a = Slice width
u = Pore water pressure
.378E+ 07
.336E+ 07
.294E+ 07
.252E+ 07
.210E+ 07
.168E+ 07
.126E+ 07
836853
416758
3338
62
Slope Stability
How to perform a stability analysis?
— Create the model (geometry, mesh, loads)
— Solve
— Capture the model for slope stability
— Slope stability needed data:
• Sliding surfaces definition
• Pore water pressure
— Solve slope stability
— Postprocess results
Only for FEM Analysis
Differences among classical methods
63
Slope Stability
Capture the model for slope stability
~SLPIN, N1, N2, N3 ~SLPINK K1, K2, K3
Valid sliding surface
Invalid sliding surface
jobname.db
jobname.cfdb
jobname.slp
64
Slope Stability
Results
Plot press.
lines
Sliding
direction
Previous and
next Circles
and Centers
Plot complete
circles
Plot loads
Sliding surf.
List
number and
safety factor
Min Coef.
Export plot
Safety Fact. map
Number of
colors
Maximum safety
factor shown
65
Tunneling
66
Wizard for Tunnel Design
Tunnel section
PLOT NO. 1
909.174
878.511
847.848
817.185
786.522
755.859
725.196
694.533
663.87
633.207
COL 3
Tensión vertic al. Frente de avanc e
Longitudinal
Section
Vertical Stress. Tunnel Advancement
Forces and Moments on
Concrete
COL 1
COL
PLOT NO. 1
.018494
.014481
.010468
.006455
.002443
.00157
.005583
.009596
.013609
.017621
Forces acting on
concrete tunnel
Movim iento vertic al. Frente de avanc e
Vertical Movement. Tunnel Advancement
Longitudinal
Section
67
Underground Structures (Tunnels)
Element Birth and Death capability (nonlinear construction sequence
analysis)
1
11
CERROGORDO
68
Underground Structures (Tunnels)
Terrain Initial Stress
Hoek & Brown Failure Criteria (rocks)
Plastic Constitutive models: 2D/3D DruckerPrager and MohrCoulomb
Element Birth and Death capability (nonlinear construction sequence
analysis)
69
Wizard for Tunnel Design
70
Wizard for Tunnel Design
71
Hoek & Brown
Failure Criterion
Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion
This tool offers the possibility to work with rock foundation models,
satisfying the Hoek and Brown’s failure model, original (1980) or modified
(1992).
— RMR Rating used to select failure model
The procedure followed by CivilFEM, is based on using, at each load step,
a DruckerPrager material, whose properties change according to its load
level.
73
Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion
HOEK & BROWN´S CRITERION VALIDITY
The Hoek and Brown’s criterion is valid only for low confinement
pressures.
In rock mechanics, four structural situations of the rock massifs are
generally distinguished according to the defects and discontinuities shown.
Group I:
Intact Rock
Rocky Massif State Classification
= m
3
+ s
σ
c
σ
c
σ ÷ σ σ
1 3
Group II:
One single discontinuity
Group III:
Two discontinuities
o
c
: Compression resistance of the
matrix rock.
Group IV:
Several discontinuities
Group V:
m,s: Constants that depend on the
characteristics of the rock and on its
cracking state
Fractured Massif
74
Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion
MODEL OPERATION
For each element in the model a stress state is read (o1, o3)
Using Hoek & Brown criteria, the parameters of Mohr Coulomb are
obtained, and from this values, the Drucker Prager equivalent parameters.
HoekBrown
c, ¢
o
1,
o
3
MohrCoulomb
DruckerPrager
Solve
75
Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion
CALCULATION PROCEDURE
After creating the model, the Hoek & Brown solver should be used.
Read material
properties at the
end of a Hoek &
Brown analysis, for
other calculations.
Write material
properties at the
end of the Hoek &
Brown analysis
76
Terrain Initial
Stress
Terrain Initial Stress
Develop Stress with no Strain
Gravity
Gravity
Terrain Initial Stress
78
Terrain Initial Stress
In order to simulate excavation processes and real terrain behavior, the
initial stresses (without strain) can be considered.
Terrain Initial Vertical Stress at each point is calculated regarding the
weight of terrain above the point.
n
o
V
=
¿
¸
i
h
i
i=1
Terrain Initial Horizontal Stress at each point depends on the vertical
stress.
o
V
o
H
= k
o
o
V
o
H
o
H
79
Terrain Initial Stress
Initial Stress is calculated
using the ~TIS command.
It will create a file
(jobname.IST), with the
stresses for each element.
Gravity direction needs to be
specified
80
Foundation Piles
Deep Foundations
Pile Cap Wizard:
— Automatic generation of rectangular, polygonal or circular pile groups
82
Piles
Driven piles
Excavated/Drilled foundations
Micropiles
• Example Pile Cap Load Test
Load Test Reinforcement
Design
83
Foundation Piles
Geometry of the pile cap:
— Polygonal or circular
DIAPIL
Y
1
X
2
3 4
5
HeightEn
HeightT (1)
WidPLA
HeightPil
LenPIL
HeightT (NumStr)
HeightT (NumStr+1)
Z
X
84
Poligonal pilewailing
Foundation Piles
Rectangular pile cap
DistPilx (1...Npx1)
_
_

DExtRig
D
E
x
t
T
o
p
DIAPIL
Y
(3,4)
Piles identified with two
numbers (I,J):
Horizontal and vertical
(I,J)
D
i s
t
P
i
l y
(
1
.
.
.
N
p
y

1
)
_
_
(1,1)
PosXCol
P
o
s
Y
C
o
l
Column
D
E
x
t
B
o
t
X
(1,2)
(2,2)
DExtLef
HeightEn
HeightPil
HeightT (1)
WidPLA
LenPIL
HeightT (Num Str)
HeightT (Num Str+1)
Z
X
Rectangular wiling of Npx x Npy piles
85
Foundation Piles
Terrain definition: Cohesive Soils
50100 2025
Hard 200400 1530 3035 3050
Cohesionless Soils
Low 410 2830 020
86
High 3050 3641 020
Consistency q
u
(kPa)
N
SPT ¢(º) c (kPa)
Very soft 3050 24 1520 010
Soft 48 1020
Medium 100200 815 2530 2030
Very hard >400 >30 >35 >50
Compacity
N
SPT ¢(º) c (kPa)
Very low 04 <28 020
Medium 1030 3036 020
Very high >50 >41 020
Foundation Piles
Internal Friction Angle vs. Cohesion
j (º)
Limit can be changed
40
45
Cohesionless soils
20
25
30
35
(c , j )
L L
5
10
15
Cohesive soils
CivilFEM's soil clasification
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 c (kPa)
87
Foundation Piles – Force  Deflection
Load capacity: Cohesive soils
— Skin friction and point resistance
L
O
A
D
Q
Q
Q
T
Q
S
P
w
S
w
P
SETTLEMENT, w
Load capacity vs. settlement in piles
88
Foundation Piles
Load capacity: Cohesive soils
— Skin friction
0.6
0.7
a
=
f
s
/
C
u
0 200 400 600 800
Undrai ned shear strength, Cu (kPa)
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Piles adhesion factor
g
(%)
f
S
1.0
1.5
2.0
a C
u
~ 50 kPa
a C
u
~ 200 kPa
w
s
= g
.
D
p
Shaft deformability factorg (%)
600 800
Undrained shear strength, Cu (kPa)
0 200 400
0.0
0.5
a C
u
~ 100 kPa
Value can be changed
89
Foundation Piles
Load capacity: Cohesive soils
— Point resistance
Values can be changed
90
Foundation Piles
Load capacity: Cohesionless soils
— Skin friction
— Point resistance
Values can be changed
91
Foundation Piles
Pile capacity: Depends on the pile’s length
z1
zp
Q Q
S P
z2
z3
znL
z
92
z
Ultimate static pile capacity
Foundation Piles – Base Soil
Point effect correction
a .D
1
p
Passive zone
(a)
_
_L
a
_
(b)
L
b
a .D
2
p
Active zone
_
(c)
L
c
a .D
3
p Security zone
Point resistance development
93
Foundation Piles – Grouping Effect
Grouping effect correction
h <
U
n
i
t
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
f
f
w
h >
_
1
(w, f)
f
(h .w, h .f)
w f
f *
Groupping effect
Unit bearing capacity is reduced
as settlement increases
Settlement, w
w w*
94
Foundation Piles – Stress Check
Mean Design Stress Checking – Structural Capacity vs. Pile diameter
o
sc
(MPa)
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
Extraordi nary Loads (Earthquake, etc)
7
6
8
9
Canadi an code (Extraordinary loads)
Recommended for
5
French Code
Recommended
for Service Loads
4
Spani sh Construction code NTE
3
2
Recommended for
si ngle pi le
(Service Loads)
1
2.00
D
p
(m)
0.40 0.20 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80
Recommended Structural Capacity
95
Foundation Piles – FEA Model
Equivalent springs
Horizontal skin springs
— Horizontal Ballast module:
Chadeysson
Vertical skin springs
Vertical point springs
Finite Element Node
Skin Vertical Spring
Skin Horizontal Springs
x
y
z
Finite Element Node
Point Vertical Spring
Springs on nodes
96
Foundation Piles  Loads
Loads on Columns: Forces and Moments
F
z
Z
Other loads:
M
z
• Pressure on slab
M
x
X
Y
M
y
F
x
• Self weight
• Seismic
acceleration
F
y
Forces and Moments sign convention
97
Foundation Piles
Reinforcement Groups:
Rigid Cap Flexible Cap
Top side Top side
Secondary rei nforcement A2s Secondary rei nforcement A2s Punchi ng rei nforcemente A2p
Bottom side
Cl ose
sti rrups
Bottom side
Pri mary rei nforcement A1p Secondary rei nforcement A1s
Secondary rei nforcement A1s Punchi ng rei nforcemente A1p
Rigid wailing: Reinforcements Flexible wailing: Reinforcements
98
Foundation Piles
99
Foundation Piles
100
Foundation Piles
101
Foundation Piles
102
Foundation Piles
103
Foundation Piles
104
Foundation Piles
105
Integration with FLAC3D
106
Foundations & Dams
Footing and continuous foundations:
—  2D/3D soilstructure interaction models
Dams
107
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