Role of Chelated Mineral in Animal Production Performance | Chelation | Coordination Complex

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Effect of Chelated Trace Mineral Supplementation on Production Performance in Ruminants

Introduction
 The word “chelate” is derived from Greek word “chele” means claw. The metal is held and protected in a claw like grip by the ligand. (mineral + ligand).  When metal ion combines with an electron donor, it forms a coordinate covalent bond & thus metal chelate is formed.  Ligand must contain a minimum of two functional groups (oxygen, nitrogen, amino or hydroxyl)

Classification of Chelates i. Natural Chelates : •Chlorophyll •Cytochrome •Vit.B12 •Haemoglobin b. On the basis of source a. Synthetic Chelates : •Metal amino acid complex •Metal polysaccharide complex •EDTA-Zn •proteinates .

Cytochrome.g. EDTA. Chelates essential in metabolism.ii.g. metal amino acid . On the basis of their action • Type l: chelates which help in storage & transport of metal ions. Phytic acid – Zn . e. e. Type lll. Chelates which interfere in utilization of essential cations. Oxalic acid – Ca. Heamoglobin . Type ll.g. e. • • .

Zn amino acid complex etc. Cu proteinate. Zn proteinate. MnMet Complex. Zn amino acid chelate etc.Types of Chelates and Other Complexes (According to the AAFCO. 5. 3.g. ZnLys Complex. 2. Metal Amino Acid Complex: e. Metal Amino Acid Chelate: e.g. CuLys Complex.g. Metal Proteinate: e. Metal Polysaccharide Complex: e. 1997) 1. Cu amino acid complex.g. 4. Metal (Specific Amino Acid) Complex: e.g. Mn proteinate etc. Cu amino acid chelate. . Cu polysaccharide complex etc.

(Wedekind et al. thereby ↑ Zn-metallothionine . (Kidds et al. 1989) . 1992)  Zn-Methionine may be metabolized intact after absorption. plasma zinc & immune cell function..Mode of action  Chelated minerals must be stable in the rumen environment & abomasum but utilized in small intestine intact... May lead to a larger Zn pool .1998)  ↑ Absorption of Zn from Zn-Met. (Spears et al.

1996) Urine ..Layout of Zn Uptake and Excretion Dietary Zinc Lumen of Intestine Chelate Inorganic Ionised Diet Zn-Albumin Complex Pool PeriNonAvailable Zn pheral Cir. Muscle Liver Bone Hair Pancrease Chelate Zn-Pool Metallothionine Kidney Feacal Zn Shedding (Kidd et al. Enterocytes Chelate Plasma Tissue Portal Cir.

Removal of Unbound Minerals Drying. 2003) . Incubation at Room Temp.Technique for Preparation of Chelated Minerals Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Protein Separation by Centrifuge and Ultra filtration Adjustment of pH Chelation Process Heating to 350C Addition of 0.1M Mineral Soln. Grinding and Storage (Dinh and Chhabra.

Increase voluntary intake. More bio-available.↓ zinc absorption) (Ward et al. Highly stable. ii. phytate .Significance of Chelated Minerals Mineral chelates are i. iii.g. 1993) . ( e.. Protected from forming complex with other dietary components that inhibit their absorption. iv.

Relative Bioavailability of Trace minerals from different sources in (%) Minerals Zn Cu Sulfate 100 100 Oxide 0 Carbonate 60 - Chloride 40 105 Organic form 159-206 130 Mn Fe 100 100 58 0 28 0-75 - 176 - Co 100 31 110 - 85 (Greene et al.. 1999) .

of animals Initial BW (lbs) Daily gain (lb/d) DMI (lb/d) a.Effect of chelated mineral supplementation on growth Effect of form of mineral on performance of calves Parameter Control Oxide Sulfate Complex No.b 31 454 2..93ab 9.76ab 10.44a 10.69b 10.1ab 31 456 2.0b 31 452 3. 1992) .01) (Ward et al.4a Values within a row with different superscripts varies (p<0.9ab 31 454 2.

30 + 1.95 30 days 45days 60 days 75 days 14.60 + 0.26 15.84 + 1.83 + 1.35 + 1.13 18.16 73.04 Group 4 12.15 15.02 + 1.78 + 4.04 + 5.13c + 1.94 + 1.09 61.33 16.60 Group 1 : Basal Diet + Protein Equiv.68 + 1. Zn Group 3 : Basal Diet + Imported Chelates Group 4 : Basal Diet + Prepared Chelates (Dihn.09 14.03 57.92 18.14 + 0.66 60.99 15.91 + 5.73 + 1.90 20.90 + 1.09 17. 2002) .22 17.31 + 1.94 60.15 13.93 + 0.07 19.94 + 1.20 Group 2 12.92 13.46 + 1.22 + 1.97 18.90 + 1.68 + 1.13 14.69 67.28 +1.22 17.08 16.13 Group 3 12.01 13.73 19.02c + 2. From SPI Group 2 : Basal Diet + Protein Equiv.83 + 1.68 + 1.46 74.16a + 0.12 20.12 19.Change in Body Wt.01 17.72 + 1.74 + 1.76 + 1.98 90 days Final BW % Increase ADG (g/d) 18.88 + 0. + Inorg.93 + 1.48 + 1.10 51. Cu.87 + 0.44 13.38 + 0.30 16.18 + 1.25 + 0.52 + 1.06b + 1.17 14.19 19. of goats at periodical interval (Kg) periods Initial BW 15 days Group 1 12. Mn.02 + 4.

. (1999) found that Angora goats fed supplemented ZnMet diet had ↑ ADG in comparison to control goat receiving ZnO (65. Zn & Mn in chelated form and showed that ADG was better than control & ADG of the group fed 50% with mineral Chelate was almost similar to the animal fed 100% of mineral in inorganic form.5 vs 55..  Roshan Lal (1990) fed Karan Swiss calves with diets supplemented with Cu . (1996) & McDonald (1995) found similar results in cattle with Cu Proteinate and in sheep with ZnLys. Ward et al.  Puchla et al. .9 g/d).

76 Mean Prod.1 + 40.01 + 0.1 + 47.047 + 1456.4 + 29.48 3.17 302.Effect of chelated mineral supplementation on Milk Production and its components Milk and Milk component Production in 1st Calf heifers given supplements of IOMs or AACs in a 305 day Milking Period Study Groups Mean Milk Prod./day for 305 days (kg) 32.11 a 389.02 b Mean Milk Protein (%) Mean Total Milk Protein (kg) IOM group 3.94 Mean Milk Fat (%) Mean Total Milk Fat (kg) 355.568 + 911.76 + 0.65 (Ashmead et al. 2004) ..36 10.57 + 0.9 + 46.89 d AAC group 34.35 3.06 + 0.21 3.305 days (kg) 10.76 c 326.

16 % in cross bred cows (Gir  Holstein  Jersey) supplemented with a mixture of Cu. Mn AAC. Parnerkar (1991) fed 4 groups of cross bred cows with Albion chelates and Cu.67 to 4. Zn caseinate (prepared) and showed that the production of milk significantly differed between groups with the Albion chelates being the best. followed by the prepared chelates and inorganic form of minerals. The % of milk protein was same for both groups. Mn. Co. Zn.  In Bombay veterinary college (2002) researchers reported 15% ↑ in total milk production and milk fat ↑ from 3. .

0 +7.6 ns 34.6 ns 44. letters within rows indicates significant difference.3 ns 82.0 +0.53 +0.5 ns 19.36 ns 3.28 b 1.08 ns 0.3 a 1.87 +0.28 ns 3.3 ns 82. 2004) .10 ns BW change (kg/d) BW (kg) 0.33 602 +4.24 +0.10 ns Chromium Yeast 33.6 ns 45.08 ns Diff.56 +0.76 a 30.0 +0.0 +7.58 b 33. (Shaikh et al.40 598 +4.0 +5.0 +0.Effect of Chromium supplementation on lactation performance & feed intake of Holstein cows Parameters Daily milk yield (kg) Fat (g/l) Protein (g/l) Lactose (g/l) SNF (g/l) Daily feed intake (kg) Production efficiency (kg milk/kg) feed BCS Control 29.24 +0.0 +0.0 +0..56 +0.5 ns 21.6 ns 31.1 +0.0 +5.

(2001) reported that heat stress decreases feed intake & milk production.. .  Hayirli et al. Shaikh et al. but no difference in production efficiency were found. (2004) found that adding Cr yeast improved significantly feed intake in Holstein cows as compared to control group. and adding chromium yeast to the diet relieved this effect..

Effect of chelated mineral supplementation on reproduction Effect of chelated Minerals in repeaters Parameters Total no.28+16. (Roshan Lal .75 51. of days taken for conception after start of treatment 7 43.00 37+9.50 33+11. Mn & Zn.41 Group 1 – Unsupplemented. of repeaters Group 1 16 Group 2 16 Group 3 16 No.93 10 62. Mn & Zn. Group 3 – Chelated Cu. of repeaters conceived Percent success (%) Avg.85 12 75. Group 2 – Ionic salt form of Cu. 1990) . no.

and Mn. Zn.Reproductive performance of cows supplemented with Organic vs Inorganic trace Minerals Parameters Treatments Control (%) Estrous cyclicity Pregnancy rate to AI (yr 1) Pregnancy rate to AI (yr 2) Pregnancy rate to AI if observed in estrous Pregnancy rate to AI if mass inseminated 26 65 34 58 19 ORG (%) 28 67 57 77 13 ING (%) 23 52 58 65 21 Overall pregnancy rate 89 93 95 ORG= 50% organic and 50% inorganic Cu. 2004) .. (Whittier et al. ING=100% inorganic Cu. and Mn. Zn.sulfate.

9 21.1 19.2 4.9 Treated ( %) 45.6 1.6 1.0 26.9 0.. 2004) .Ovarian Activity of Holstein heifer Fed Amino Acid Chelated Minerals vs Control Parameters Follicle 1 (Small) Follicle 2 (Medium) Follicle 3 (Large) No Activity Cysts Control (%) 40.5 11.9 (Manspeaker et al.

Zn.. (1993) found that treatment of cows with selected mineral amino acid chelates produced positive effect on ovarian activity. .  Corbellini et al.  Manspeaker et al.. (2000) reported that a higher pregnancy rate to AI was observed in cows receiving organic Cu. (1997) reported that there was a significant reduction in prevalence of dystocia. and Mn Vs inorganic forms. Stanton et al. endometritis and parturition conception interval in cows supplemented with Zn-Met chelates. embryonic viability and overall fertility.. endometrial health.

.20 127. Zn from each source (ZnM & HiZnM).1 2.8 1. 20mg or 500mg of supp.6 2. (Spears et al.9 425.8 668.10 1.Effect of chelated mineral supplementation on Blood and Tissue Levels Effect of Zn source and level on plasma and liver Zn concentrations and liver metallothionein Treatment Parameters control ZnSO4 Zn Prot Zn M Hi ZnSO4 Hi ZnProt Hi ZnM Plasma Zn (mg/l) 1.2 (mg/kg DM) Liver MT (g/g tissue) 334.4 1.8 Liver Zn 133.1 418. 2004) .19 146.0 616.79 231.9 377.14 175.1 1.33 331.0 683. Zn Proteinate (ZnP & HiZnProt) or a mixture supplying 50% supp.8 Control : no supp.30 286. Zn/kg DM as ZnSo4 (ZnSo4 & HiZnSO4). .

post-stress (Nockles et al. pre.vs.Influence of copper source on copper retention in calves.. 1993) .

(1996) showed no difference between organic Spears and Kegley (2002) and inorganic Zn sources in plasma or tissue concentrations of cattle supplemented with normal or low concentration of Zn ... Kessler et al.Rojas et al. (2000) showed that Lambs supplemented with 1400mg of Zn/kg from ZnProt had greater liver MT than lambs receiving ZnSO4. .. (2003) Cao et al.

. Weeks (Pehrson et al.Plasma Selenium concentrations in dairy cow during a supplementation period of 12Wk 100 Plasma selenium (µg/lit) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -2 4 Time. 1999) control selenite selenate Se-Yeast 12 .

Milk Selenium concentrations in dairy cow during a supplementation period of 12Wk 35 30 Milk selenium (µg/lit) 25 20 15 10 5 0 -2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 Tim e.w eeks control Selenite Selenate Se-Yeast (Pehrson et al.. 1999) .

 Selenite and selenate have a limited capacity to increase the concentration of Se in milk from dairy cow. (Ortman et al..  Organic Se yeast is much more effective than inorganic compounds and increases the Se in milk within 1 wk after the beginning of supplementation. and there are no significant difference between two inorganic compounds. 1999) .

20c + 0.20 ** Means in same rows bearing different superscripts differ significantly.02c + 0.01 (Dihn.27 P NS * 1.17 3.07d + 0.35 + 0.55b + 0.14 2.34 Group 2 2.57 + O.40 2.74 + O.24 3. 2002) .27a + 0.38 2.94a + 0.Effect of chelated mineral supplementation on immunity Cell mediated immune response in goats (SI) Parameters Beginning Midexperiment At the end Group 1 2. * P<.25 Group 4 2.14 Group 3 2.21 2.05 .74c + 0.46 + 0. ** P<.11 3.54b + 0.

CuLys. of leucocytes & neutrophils..  Spears et al.. (1991) reported that the Serum antibody titre in response to BHV-1 and PI-3 vaccination were 47% and 37% higher in Steers fed ZnMet compared to control and ZnO. Clark et al. Cobalt glucoheptonate showed greatest response to cell mediated immunity & highest no. MnMet. . (1995) found that Heifers fed ZnMet.

2001) ..Effect of Zn-Met supplementation on mammary mastitis infections in dairy goat Parameters Animals Halves Control 10 20 Supplemented 10 20 Positive samples Infected animals Infected Halves 6 3 (30%) 3 1 1 (10%) 1 Incidence. % 15 5 (Casal et al.

2001)  Zn Proteinate supplementation might enhance the keratin synthesis in the teat canal tissue. 1994) . (Spain. Results showed that percentage of positive sample tended to be decreased by ZnMet supplementation. (Casals. thus decreasing the incidence of new infections.

6b 71.8 116.36 After 32.2 58.4 122.4 51. Chelate Sulfate Before After Before After 31. of plasma IgG & protein of cows fed supplementary Zn & Cu of different sources for 15 days Parameters Zinc (100 ppm) Copper (20 ppm) Met.9 Means in same rows bearing different superscripts differ significantly. mg/ml 114.8a 26.6 35.7a 70.70 30.2 29.85 30.1 37.2 35.scc & conc.6 54.73 30.55 87.6b 94. (Inkee Paik.50 29. mg/ml Plasma Protein..9 114.5 117.3 56.0 59. 104 Plasma IgG.2 27.Milk production .46 Production.18 23.8 91.1 56. 2001) .3 28.3 Sulfate Before After Met.4 27. kg/d Somatic Cell. Chelate Before Milk 29.

05) (Spears and Kegley.7 0. kg/d IgG.88 6.2 0.89 6.725bc Cr Yeast 214.31 314 1.9 263.15 300 1.34 330 1. mg/dl Control 215.649b CrNica 215. 1995) . kg Final wt.83 6.616b CrCl3 214. kg ADG.41 378 1.c: means between rows lacking a common superscript letter differ (p<.0 264.1 261.Effect of chromium level and source on performance of steer fed corn silage-based diets Parameters Initial wt.8 0.900c a : Cr-nicotinic acid complex b.7 0. mg/dl IgM.4 263.86 6. kg Feed intake.

 Chromium supplementation (0.  Mowat and Shageer ( 1993) reported that supplemental chromium from a high Cr-yeast improve performance and immune response in stress feeder calves.  Chang and Mowat (1992) Observed increased serum IgM and a tendency for increased serum IgG1 and IgG2 in calves supplemented with high Cr-yeast. High-Cr yeast.4 mg/kg) from CrCl3. Cr nicotinic acid did not significantly affect performance of feeder steers fed a corn silage based diet. .

 Supplementation of Chelated Trace minerals has positive effect on the growth and reproductive performance of ruminants.  Chelated minerals have the potential to maintain/improve the performance of ruminants during stressful conditions like adverse environment. parturition and high production.Conclusion  Bio-availability of chelated minerals is more than inorganic form of minerals. transit. .  Chelated minerals improves the immune status of animals.

3. and Determine if responses observed are of a magnitude necessary to justify the cost. 2. Determine the mode of action whereby organic trace mineral supplements improve ruminant performance. . Better define conditions where performance or health responses may be expected. 4.Future Research Areas 1. Define the optimal level of organic trace minerals that should be added to the diet.

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