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Flue Gas system Air pre Heater

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Presentation Plan
• • • • • • Air heaters Types of air heaters Materials Used Sealing arrangement for air heaters Air heater Performance Performance tests

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AIR PRE HEATER
APH is the last heat exchanger in the boiler flue gas circuit. To achieve BYPASS SEAL maximum boiler efficiency HOT END maximum possible useful heat must be removed from the gas before it leaves the APH. However certain minimum COLD END temperature has to be maintained in the flue gas to prevent cold end 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 corrosion
RADIAL SEAL

AXIAL SEAL

HOT INTERMEDIATE

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Air Pre-Heater-functions
• An air pre-heater heats the combustion air where it is economically feasible. • The pre-heating helps the following: • Igniting the fuel. • Improving combustion. • Drying the pulverized coal in pulverizer. • Reducing the stack gas temperature and increasing the boiler efficiency. • There are three types of air heaters: Recuperative Rotary regenerative Heat pipe
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Advantages by use of APH
• • • • • • • • Stability of Combustion is improved by use of hot air. Intensified and improved combustion. Permitting to burn poor quality coal. High heat transfer rate in the furnace and hence lesser heat transfer area requirement. Less un-burnt fuel particle in flue gas thus combustion and efficiency is improved. Intensified combustion permits faster load variation and fluctuation. In the case of pulverized coal combustion, hot air can be used for heating the coal as well as for transporting the pulverized coal to burners. This being a non-pressure part will not warrant shut-down of unit due to corrosion of heat transfer surface which is inherent with lowering of flue gas temperature.
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Types Of Air Preheater        Recuperative Regenerative Plate type Airheater Steam Air Preheater Langsdorm type Rothemuhle type Tri sector Air Heater 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 6 .

Tubular Air Heaters (Recuperative) 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 7 .

Tubular Air Pre-Heater 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 8 .

0 – 1.Design Parameters • • • • • • • • • • Tubes are generally arranged in staggered pattern. Plate Recuperators: Instead of tube. parallel plates are used.2 The height of air chamber:1.5 m. Transverse pitch: S1/d = 1. Steel tubes of Dia: 37 – 63 mm. The air passage is 12 mm wide. The gas passage is 12 – 16 mm wide. Gas and Air flow velocity : 10 – 16 m/s. PMI Revision 00 9 29 May 2013 .5 – 1.4 – 4.9 Longitudinal pitch: S2/d = 1.

Regenerative air pre heater BYPASS SEAL RADIAL SEAL HOT END AXIAL SEAL COLD END HOT INTERMEDIATE 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 10 .

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• Weight : 500 tons. shell etc. 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 12 .75 rpm. • Heat storage pales are placed in these sections. sealing apparatus. • Rotor is divided into 12 or 24 sections and 12 or 24 radial divisions.Rotary Plate (Regenerative) type Pre-Heater • Rotates with a low speed : 0. • Each sector is divided into several trapezoidal sections with transverse division plates. • This consists of : rotor.

29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 13 . thus prolonging operational life.The Material used in APH for heat storage • Material used Cold end in the basket is a special type of steel (corten steel (trade name)) which has high resistance to the low temperature sulphur corrosion. • In the hot end mild steels are used • The optimal geometric shape is usually corrugated and sizes are determined based on design modelling and experimental data. The turbulence of air and gas flow through the package increases the heat transfer rate.

Stationary-Plate Type Air Pre-Heater 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 14 .

29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 15 .Stationary-Plate Type Air Pre-Heater • The heat storage elements are static but the air/gas flow section rotates. • The storage plates are placed in the stator.

Trisector air Heater 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 16 .

Heating Elements • Hot End Baskets • Hot Intermediate Baskets • Cold End Baskets 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 17 .

TYPES OF SEALS • • • • • RADIAL SEAL (HE & CE) AXIAL SEAL CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL ROTOR POST SEAL SECTOR PLATE STATIC SEAL 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 18 .

Axial seal leakage .78% 4.17% _______________________________________________ Total percentage Entrapped leakage = = 87.99% TOTAL = 100% 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 19 .98% 3.62. Center post seal leakage 3. By pass or circumferential seal leakage 0.11.21% 2. CE Radial seal leakage .PERCENTAGE AIR LEAKAGE OF TOATAL LEAKAGES 1.08.87% 5. HE Radial seal leakage .01% 12.

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RADAIAL SEALS & SECTOR PLATE RADIAL SEALS AND SECTOR PLATES ARE LOCATED AT THE HOT AND COLD ENDS OF THE AIR PREHEATER. • PURPOSE: . WHICH SEPARATE THE INDIVIDUAL ROTOR COMPARTMENT. THE RADIAL SEALS ARE ATTACHED TO THE DIAPHRAGMS.THE PURPOSE OF RADIAL SEALS IS TO REDUCE THE AREA AVAILABLE FOR LEAKAGE FROM THE AIR TO THE GAS SIDE BETWEEN THE DIAPHRAGM AND THE SECTOR PLATE • 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 22 .

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• 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 25 .AXIAL SEALS AND SEALING PLATES AXIAL SEALS MINIMIZE LEAKAGE PASSING RADIALLY AROUND THE ROTOR SHELL. THE AXIAL SEALS ARE MOUNTED ON THE OUT SIDE OF THE ROTOR SHELL AND SEAL AGAINST THE AXIAL SEAL PLATES MOUNTED ON THE AIR PREHEATER HOUSING.

AXIAL SEAL DIAPHRAGM COG RIM PIN 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 26 .

AXIAL SEAL PLATE TURN-BUCKLE AXIAL SEAL INSPECTION DOOR ADJUSTABLE BOLT JACK BOLT 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 27 .

• The thickness of seal strips : 6 MM straight strips in Russian.5 mm thick and bend backward in BHEL. Axial Seal Arrangement BHEL APH has better accessibility of axial seal adjustment as compared to Russian design 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 28 . 2.• Curved axial sector plate adjustable from outside • Seal strips are attached to the rotor.

THEY ALSO PREVENT AIR AND GAS FROM FLOWING AXIALLY AROUND THE ROTOR. 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 29 .CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEALS • THE CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEALS PREVENT AIR AND GAS FROM BYPASSING THE HEATING SURFACE THROUGH THE SPACE BETWEEN THE ROTOR AND THE HOUSING SHELL.

ROTOR FLANGE 30 . DIAPHRAGM 29 May 2013 2.E.5MM RADIAL SEAL PMI Revision 00 H.CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEALRUSSIAN CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL H.E.

ROTOR FLANGE AXIAL SEAL CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 ADJUSTABLE BOLT 31 .

CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEALS ACTUATING MECHANISMRUSSIAN Actuating Bolt 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 32 .

29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 33 . • THE STATIC SEALS PREVENT LEAKAGE BETWEEN THE HOT & COLD END SECTOR PLATES AND THE HOT AND COLD END CENTER SECTIONS.ROTOR POST SEALS • ROTOR POST SEALS PREVENT LEAKAGE BETWEEN THE ENDS OF THE ROTOR POST AND THE AIR PREHEATER HOUSING.

SECTOR PLATE STATIC SEAL 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 HE ROTOR POST SEAL 34 .

DIAPHRAGM 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 CE ROTOR POST SEAL 35 .

AIR SEAL HOUSING 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 36 .

ROTOR POST SEAL 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 37 .

5 MM : 0.1 MM 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 38 .THICKNESS OF RADIAL SEAL STRIPS • RUSSIAN MODEL • BHEL DESIGN • SOFT SEAL : 6 MM : 2.

SOFT SEAL IS SET TO A NEGATIVE CLEARANCE IN COLD CONDITION. • DEMERIT : . 39 .FLEXIBLE / SOFT SEALS • THE FLEXIBLE SEALS WAS DEVELOPED TO REDUCE NORMAL LEAKAGE CAUSED BY THE THERMAL EXPANSION OF THE ROTOR WHILE THE UNIT IS OPERTAING. • MERIT : . THE PMI WEAR LIFE IS VERY LOW.SINCE THIS IS AN INTERFERENCE OR 29 May 2013 Revision 00 CONTACT SEAL. THE ROTOR EXPANSION OPENS UP AREAS OF DIRECT AIR TO GAS LEAKAGE THAT CAN BE GREATLY REDUCED BY INSTALLING FLEXIBLE SEALS. AND WHICH WILL EXTEND IN THE HOT CONDITION TO OPERATE AS A STANDARD PROXIMITY SEAL.

95 LAC • AXIAL SOFT SEAL/ SET :.0.COST OF SOFT SEALS • RADIAL SOFT SEAL HE/ SET :.0.4 LAC 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 40 .1 LAC • RADIAL SOFT SEAL CE/ SET :.

BHEL 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 41 .MODULAR APH .

RADIAL SEAL 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 42 .

BY PASS SEAL RUSSIAN BY PASS SEAL RUSSIAN 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 43 .

This also affects ESP. soot blowing & regular maintenance etc. ID & FD fan loadings & at times unit capability • • • • • Factors affecting APH performance Excess air level / No of Mills in service Primary Air to Secondary Air ratio Moisture in coal/ Air ingress level Performance of upstream ash evacuation system • Procedure for cleaning.APH PERFORMANCE • Boiler efficiency decreases generally on account of APH performance degradation. 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 44 .

but this could be one reason for high exit temperature. • Optimum flue gas temperature is required for effective ESP performance • Unequal temperature at air heater exit should be investigated. • Higher inlet flue gas temperature is rather rare. 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 45 .APH PERFORMANCE • Higher than expected leakage would decrease the flue gas exit temperature. resulting in false sense of improved working.

• CORRECTED TEMP SHOULD BE USED FOR COMPARISION. • NO OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR PROVIDED SHOULD COVER THE DUCT ADEQUATELY. 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 46 .FLUE GAS EXIT TEMP AT APH OUTLET • FLUE GAS TEMP AT AH OUTLET IS INDICATIVE OF HEAT LEAVING THE UNIT . • FGET TO BE MEASURED AT A LOCATION SLIGHTLY AWAY FROM AIR HEATERS.THIS IS LOWERED ON ACCOUNT OF AH LEAKAGES.

Typical Oxygen Levels at APH Inlet / Outlet Oxygen in Flue Gas at AH A Inlet / Outlet 10 8 Inlet O2 % Oxygen in Flue Gas at AH B Inlet / Outlet 12 10 Outlet O2 % 10 8 Inlet O2 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C Inlet O2 Probe D E Outlet O2 F Outlet O2 6 4 2 0 A B C Inlet O2 Probe D E Outlet O2 F 8 6 4 2 0 6 4 2 0 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 47 .

8 * 90 (21-5.7 – 2.CO2 measurement is preferred due to high absolute values.9 * 100 (21. This leakage is assumed to occur entirely between air inlet and gas outlet Hot End / Cold End / Entrained Leakage Calculation Empirical relationship using the change in concentration of O2 or CO2 in the flue gas = = CO2in .1 % 48 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 . Air Leakage Weight of air passing from air side to gas side. the resultant influence on leakage calculation is small. In case of any measurement errors.O2out) = 5.CO2out * 0.7) = 17.O2in * 0.9 * 100 CO2out O2out .

PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION OF APH • • • • • Seal Leakage Erosion Corrosion High Press Drop Across APH APH Fire 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 49 .

APH Performance Test • APH Leakage • Gas Side Efficiency • X-Ratio 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 50 .

O2in * 0.O2out) PMI Revision 00 29 May 2013 51 .9 * 100 CO2out = O2out .RATIO = T (gas in) – T (gas out) (no lkg)/ T(air out) –T (air in) • Air Leakage = CO2in .9 * 100 (21.CO2out * 0.• GAS SIDE EFFICIENCY = (Temp drop / Temperature head) * 100 • X.

4 85.FG TEMP (Corr.6 85.2 BOILER EFFICIENCY (%) 66 GAS SIDE EFFICIENCY (%) 52 86 85.8 Boiler Efficinecy 65 64 63 62 Gas Side Efficiency 85.2 85 150 61 60 59 58 180 155 160 165 170 175 CORRECTED FLUE GAS TEMP (Deg C) 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 .) Vs BLR EFF & GAS SIDE EFF 86.

X – Ratio Ratio of heat capacity of air passing through the air heater to the heat capacity of flue gas passing through the air heater.5 C. Air Out Temp – 288 C X ratio = (333. Gas In Temp – 333. = Wair out * Cpa Wgas in * Cpg = Tgas in .73 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 53 .1 C. Air In Temp – 36.1) = 0.1%.8 C .Tair in Say AH leakage – 17.Tgas out (no leakage) Tair out . Gas Out Temp – 133.5) / (288 –36.5 – 150.

A low X-ratio indicates either excessive gas weight through the air heater or that air flow is bypassing the air heater.X-Ratio depends on • • • moisture in coal. air & gas mass flow rates leakage from the setting specific heats of air & flue gas X-ratio does not provide a measure of thermal performance of the air heater. air infiltration. but is a measure of the operating conditions. PMI Revision 00 54 29 May 2013 . A lower than design X-ratio leads to a higher than design gas outlet temperature & can be used as an indication of excessive tempering air to the mills or excessive boiler setting infiltration.

= X1/ X2 = 35 * (345-143.6) / (345 – 41.5 – 41.9) + 345 (143.Tair in) + EGTcor Cpg * 100 = [13.Air Temp In) X2 = Gas Temp In .Air Temp In EGTcor.7* (139.5 C EGT Corrected for inlet air temp and for AH leakage = AL * Cpa * (EGTcor .Flue Gas Exit Temperature Flue Gas Exit Temperature is corrected for inlet air temperature X1 = Reference Air Temp * (Gas Temp In – Gas Temp Out) + Gas Temp In * (Gas Temp Out .9 – 41.6)] / 100 + 139.9 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 55 .5 = 152.6) = 139.

THANK YOU 29 May 2013 PMI Revision 00 56 .