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PARTLY ERECTED OR DISMANTLED SCAFFOLDS

No scaffold or part of a scaffold shall be partly erected or dismantled and remain in such a condition that it is capable of being used unless the scaffold complies with the following: a prominent warning notice indicating that the scaffold, or any part thereof is not to be used, positioned at or near any point of access; or, access to the scaffold or any part thereof is, as far as is reasonably practicable, effectively blocked off.

LEDGERS AND TRANSOMS


ledgers must be level and fixed to standards with right - angle couplers. In normal use, transoms should be spaced so that the spans of scaffold boards should not be greater than: * 32mm thickness boards: 1.0m * 38mm boards: 1.5m * 50mm boards: 2.6m

TRANSOMS: LEDGERS: Maximum spacing 1.5 m. Centers not to exceed 2.0 m, but base lift may be a maximum of 2.7 m

LADDER
set at a working angle of 75 degree to the horizontal, i.e. one foot out for every four foot of height, and extend at least 1.05m (5 rungs) above platform level to provide adequate rungs on a stepping-off points should be on a level with the working platform. and hold at all stepping-off points

GUARD RAIL Minimum height of 910mm on all structures over 2.00m high and secured on inside of standards. A second lower guard rail or higher toe board should be provided to limit gap to 470mm. TOE BOARDS - Min. height 150mm fixed on all structures. BOARDING - To be close boarded and end butted throughout. TRANSOMS Mximum spacing 1.5m. STANDARDS. Centers dependent upon duty use. LEDGERS Centers not to exceed 2m, but base lift may be up to 2.7m max. TIES Hook, Lip, physical reveal etc. to be considered individually, and B.S. requirements observed. LEDGER JOINTS Not more than 1/3 into a bay and be staggered throughout i.e. adjacent bays or lifts. STANDARD JOINTS Must not occur at same height. STANDARD/LEDGERS Fixed with right angle couplers. BRACING Ledger, zig-zag, Dog Leg, always secured on load bearing couplers at alternate pairs of standards. Face, Faade, Longitudinal, Wind, 45o Angle over full structure height at 30m centers secured with load bearing couplers and joined end with sleeves. BASEPLATES Generally below standards, and 150mm x 150mm size. SOLE PLATES Use in prescribed circumstances and no smaller than 1,000cm2 beneath one standard.

WALKWAYS
Width of working platforms more than 2m high, must be: 600mm wide (3 boards) when used for persons only and not for materials. 800mm wide (4 boards) when used for persons and for the deposit of materials, though there must be a 430mm passage left for persons clear of materials. This passage must be increased to 600mm if barrows are to be used. 1.05m wide (5 boards) if used to carry a trestle or any other higher platform, and 1.30m wide (6 boards) if used by masons.

STANDARDS
Standards on base plates should be set vertically in rows at not more than 2.50m centre to centre in each direction. ledgers The first lift should not be more than 2.50m high; subsequent lifts should be at 2m intervals transoms At working platform level, transoms spaced at not more than 1.50m intervals (assuming 38mm thick boards are used) should be fixed to ledgers with right angle or putlog couplers

SCAFFOLD TOWERS

Foundation
erected and used on firm ground. static towers should have metal base plates. mobile towers must be used only on hard, level surfaces and fitted with wheels or castors which should not be less than 125 mm in diameter. castors or wheels should be locked into the base of standards and be fitted with brakes which cannot accidentally be released

working platforms
fully boarded and at least 600mm wide, or at least 800mm wide when used for the deposit of materials. protected from tipping or sliding by being properly supported by the use of cleats or other proprietary fittings. any trap door or hatch on the platform should be closed

Guard rails and toe boards


fitted on all four sides of the platform. Toe boards must rise at least 150mm above platform level guardrails must be between 910mm and 1.15m above platform with the distance between top of the toe board and guardrail not exceeding 765mm

Access
Access should be provided either by: vertical ladders attached internally to the narrow side. internal inclined ladders, or inclined stairway, ladder sections, integral with frame members should be climbed from the inside as illustrated rungs should be no more than 300mm apart and the stiles not more than 480mm apart climbing using the horizontal of end frames should not be permitted the maximum recommended freestanding height for mobile towers is 9.6m, and for static towers, 12m.

SUSPENDED SCAFFOLD (NOT POWER OPERATED)


all ropes, winches, blocks and tackle must be strong enough and

correctly rigged. safe anchorage for the suspension must be provided have brakes which apply when the operating lever is released. be protected from the weather, falling dirt etc. maintained in good condition and platforms prevented from swaying whilst in use. steel wire rope must be used for the suspension of all platforms other than lightweight cradles. lightweight cradles may be suspended by fiber ropes and pulley blocks which should not be more than 3.20m apart. (only ropes recommended by manufacturers should be used).

Outriggers
be long enough and strong enough. be horizontal (light cradles are excepted). have stops at their outer ends (light cradles excepted). be tied down or properly counterweighted at the tail. be close enough together to support the rails and scaffolds properly. Counterweights be bolted or securely attached to the outriggers. be at least three times the overturning movement of load Platforms hung clear of the building or face of the structure. be close boarded. be at least 430mm wide on lightweight cradles. be at least 600mm wide on all other types if used only for workmen, or be at least 800mm wide if used for workmen and materials. never be used to carry another higher platform.

Runways
strong enough and in good condition have stops at each end be bolted or tied securely to their supports

Suspension ropes or chains must be properly secured, both overhead and to the frame of the platform
Winches must have at least two full turns of rope on the drum when platform is in its lowest position be marked with the length of rope on the drum

SUSPENDED ACCESS EQUIPMENT

a cradle or working platform suspension ropes and hoisting equipment a temporary or permanent roof rig to which the suspension ropes and cradle are attached. Suspended access equipment normally falls into two classes: those relying on counterweights for stability (usually temporary installed) those which are structurally attached to the roof or top part of the building (usually permanently installed).

installation and rigging


Before installing or rigging suspended access equipment you should ensure that: installation is carried out by an experienced cradle erector.

all equipment is thoroughly examined by a competent person after installation and /or rigging and before being put into service. Particular attention is paid to the safety of those installing or rigging the equipment to ensure that they are provided with appropriate means of fall prevention or fall arrest. roof rig should be designed by a competent engineer who should ensure that that the supporting structure is able to withstand the imposed loading.
when traversing tracks are used they should be set as nearly horizontal as possible. spacing of outriggers should be determined with reference to manufacturers specification and the loads to be carried. where counterweights are used as the means of holding down the inboard end of an outrigger they should be marked with their weight and firmly attached to the outrigger. (Bags of sand, cement etc. are not appropriate counterweights). all outriggers must be strong enough to carry the weight of the suspended platform and its load, with the appropriate safety factor.

working platforms
guard rails and toe boards Whatever type of working platform is used, toe boards, at least 150mm high, and a main guard rail at least 910mm above platform level must be fitted. A further guard rail, or other suitable barrier must also be fitted so that the gap between any guard rail or barrier and toe board does not exceed 470mm. decking Decking of the platform, which must be at least 600mm wide, should have a sound, slip resistant surface and should be fixed so that it cannot be accidentally displaced. Except to the extend necessary for drainage, the decking should be close boarded, or plated prevention of falls In order to prevent the access equipment from falling in the event of a rope failure, the suspension system should include a secondary rope and fall arrest device. Where it is not practical to fit a safety rope, each operative should be provided with a suitable safety harness

Electrically operated equipment


Equipment should be installed in accordance with the IEE Regulations for Electrical installations and operated to ensure compliance with the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Departments (ADWEA) Regulations. The power point should be accessible at all times, and, when work is in progress, there should be a notice clearly displayed to warn that power must not be switched off. Power cables should be: looped and secured at roof level to prevent any risk of them being pulled out of their sockets. cables and connections should not be allowed to lie in gutters where water can collect. pendant cables must be robust and of adequate length to allow for planned movement of the platform.

Operation Suspended access equipment must be operated strictly in accordance with manufacturers recommendations. It is recommended that the equipment is checked daily. Main requirements: only trained people should be allowed to work on suspended access equipment. supervisors should be experienced and competent in the whole operation. working platforms should be raised and lowered with care so that they remain as near horizontal as possible. mobile roof rigs should not be moved whilst operatives are on the platform. when work is being carried out from the platform , or it is left in place between periods of work, it should be tied to each end of the building to prevent undue movement.

a suitable emergency procedure should be established and understood by all those involved in the work. when left in position unattended, care should be taken to ensure that unauthorized persons cannot easily reach trailing ends of suspension or safety ropes. Similarly, all electrical gear should be out of reach and effectively isolated suspended access equipment should only be used for the purpose for which it was intended. It should never be used for transferring persons from place to place. platform and equipment should be regularly washed down (taking care to prevent wetting any electrical equipment). Precautions for the protection of the public, such as the provision of ground level barriers, must always be considered in the use of suspended access equ

MOBILE ELEVATING WORK PLATFORMS (MEWP'S)


Mobile elevating work platforms (MEWPs) are classified as lifting equipment for lifting persons. They are designed to provide a temporary working platform which can be easily moved from one location to another.

scissor lifts, telescopic boom , articulating boom combined telescopic &articulating boom

Precautions (all types)


Conduct risk assessment 1. If outriggers are fitted, check they can be fully extended in the working area. 2. Check machine is level or can be leveled. 3. Check the ground is firm and will support loadings. Use adequate packing if necessary under outriggers. Avoid basements, cellars, sewers, drains, manholes, old trenches, joints in concrete, and cracks. 4. Only trained persons should be allowed to operate a MEWP. Operators should have received training for the relevant class of machine and, in addition, should receive familiarization training for the particular make and model to be operated. Such familiarization training is typically provided by plant hire companies when a MEWP is delivered to site. It does not constitute adequate training in itself. 5. Safety harnesses should be worn at all times by personnel working from the platform. Harnesses must be attached to purpose-designed anchorage points (if provided) or other suitable anchorage points as indicated in the manufacturers' instructions. Note that the top guard-rail of the working platform may not be suitable as an anchorage point.

6. The safe working load must be clearly marked at the base of the machine

and on the working platform. The load specified must not be exceeded. Care needs to be taken to reduce the build up of debris and material on the platform. Telescopic and articulating machines are normally designed to carry operators and tools only. Scissor lifts may have the capability to carry some materials. Manufacturers' instructions must be followed. 7. Persons should not leave the working platform whilst in an elevated position, nor should materials be transferred. 8. Step ladders or hop-ups must never be used on the working platform to gain extra reach or height.

9. MEWPs must only be used within the manufacturers recommended wind speeds. This may necessitate a wind speed indicator being available.

10. If MEWPs are self-propelled, the operator must walk the intended route to identify any hazards before commencing the operation. Travelling on inclines must only be carried out within the limits specified by the manufacturer. Most MEWPs have very low gradient tolerance and are fitted with tilt alarms to warn when the limits are exceeded. 11. MEWPs are fitted with emergency (auxiliary) lowering controls and an emergency stop switch. Before using a MEWP the operator(s) and another responsible person on site (who is not working on the platform) must know how to use the emergency controls. 12. On completion of the work, the MEWP should be parked in a designated area. It should never be left in a raised position. The MEWP should have the engine/ motor switched off and the key removed

MEWP operator's daily safety checklist


From ground level 1. Check that manufacturer's handbook is with the machine. 2. Check fuel, water and oil levels and that batteries are fully charged. Ensure batteries are secure, clean, free from corrosion and electrolyte level is adequate 3. Check the machine starts and that the emergency stop button (engine cut-out) works. 4. Check that tyres are free from significant damage and are inflated to the correct pressure. Check that wheel nuts are in place and properly tightened. 5. Check structural parts for visible cracks or damage. 6. Check that the hydraulic system is free from leaks and that cables are in good condition. 7. Check that pins and retainers are in position and in good condition. 8. Check that signs identifying the controls, SWL, crush points, etc are in place and readable. 9. Check that all powered movements for telescoping, raising, lowering and slewing are in good working order. 10. Check that emergency lowering controls are fully functional. Always refer to manufacturer's handbook.

From the working platform 1. Check that the platform structure is in good condition, clean and free from grease and dirt, and that cage door locks are fully functional. 2. Check that decals identifying the controls, SWL, harness anchor points, maximum wind speeds, etc are in place and readable. 3. Check that all powered movements for telescoping, raising, lowering and slewing are in good working order. 4. Check that emergency lowering controls are fully functional. 5. Test lights and horn, when fitted. 6. Check that the steering controls function correctly in forward and reverse. 7. Test brakes to ensure that they are working efficiently in forward and reverse. 8. For machines designed to travel while the platform is raised, check that the "drive speed is restricted when the platform is in the raised position.

NB When carrying out these checks operators must not work under a raised boom or platform unless movement has been prevented by means of suitable locking devices.