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Organization Development

Overview of Management Tools and Techniques by Ever Vincent D. Soriquez

Organization Development
 Organization development (OD) is a deliberately planned, organization-wide effort to increase an organization's effectiveness or efficiency.

and processes that lead to organization effectiveness. improvement. 2005) . (Cummings and Worley.Organization Development  Organization Development is a system wide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development. and reinforcement of strategies. structures.

community. (McLean. region. either initially or over the long term. or for the benefit of an organization.Organization Development  Organization development is any process or activity. expertise. 2005) . and other desired outcomes. ultimately. has the potential to develop in an organizational setting enhanced knowledge. the whole of humanity. or. productivity. satisfaction. interpersonal relationships. income. whether for personal or group/team gain. nation. that. based on the behavioral sciences.

History  Kurt Lewin (1898–1947) is widely recognized as the founding father of OD. From Lewin came the ideas of group dynamics and action research which underpin the basic OD process as well as providing its collaborative consultant/client ethos. . although he died before the concept became current in the mid-1950s.

Attempting to create an environment in which it is possible to find exciting and challenging work. Margulies and Raia (1972) articulated the humanistic values of OD as follows: 1. the organization. Providing opportunities for people to function as human beings rather than as resources in the productive process. 2. p.Core Values Underlying Organization Development are humanistic values. Treating each human being as a person with a complex set of needs. Providing opportunities for each organization member. 6. Seeking to increase the effectiveness of the organization in terms of all of its goals. 3) . all of which are important in his work and in his life. 1972. 4. to develop to his full potential. 5. as well as for the organization itself. 3. Providing opportunities for people in organizations to influence the way in which they relate to work. and the environment. (Margulies.

5. To increase employee's level of satisfaction and commitment. 2. To increase the organization problem solving. 3. 6. 4. To increase cooperation among the employees. To effectively manage conflict.Objectives of OD 1. To increase the level of inter-personal trust among employees. To confront problems instead of neglecting them. .

 A change agent's main strength is a comprehensive knowledge of human behavior. supported by a number of intervention techniques.Change Agent  A change agent in the sense used here is not a technical expert skilled in such functional areas as accounting. . or finance.  The change agent is a behavioral scientist who knows how to get people in an organization involved in solving their own problems. production.

.Sponsoring Organization  The initiative for OD programs often comes from an organization that has a problem or anticipates facing a problem. This means that top management or someone authorized by top management is aware that a problem exists and has decided to seek help in solving it.

data exploration by the client group." make a diagnosis. and taking action. and write a prescription.  The basic method used is known as action research."  Some believe that the change agent is not a physician to the organization's ills.Applied Behavioral Science  One of the outstanding characteristics of OD that distinguishes it from most other improvement programs is that it is based on a "helping relationship. that s/he does not examine the "patient. (French & Bell) .  The change agent's main function is to help the organization define and solve its own problems. action planning based on the data. This approach consists of a preliminary diagnosis. feedback of the data to the client. collecting data.

including its relevant environment — or with a subsystem or systems — departments or work groups — in the context of the total system.Systems Context  OD deals with a total system — the organization as a whole. .

This is consistent with the systems concept of feedback as a regulatory and corrective mechanism. and an action plan with which to monitor its own state of health and to take corrective steps toward its own renewal and development. pp. attitudes. 1976. behaviors.Organizational self-renewal  The ultimate aim of OD practitioners is to "work themselves out of a job" by leaving the client organization with a set of tools. (Johnson. 219–222) .

 If one idea can be said to summarize OD's underlying philosophy. it would be action research as it was conceptualized by Kurt Lewin and later elaborated and expanded on by other behavioral scientists. .Action Research  Wendell L French and Cecil Bell defined organization development (OD) at one point as "organization improvement through action research" (French & Bell).

"Refreezing": Application of new behavior is evaluated. 3.Action Research Lewin's description of the process of change involves three steps: 1. "Unfreezing": Faced with a dilemma or disconfirmation. and if reinforcing. 2. the individual or group becomes aware of a need to change. . adopted. "Changing": The situation is diagnosed and new models of behavior are explored and tested.

or they may be used by the client following a program to check on the state of the organization's health.  Interventions are structured activities used individually or in combination by the members of a client system to improve their social or task performance.  They may be introduced by a change agent as part of an improvement program. .OD Interventions  "Interventions" are principal learning processes in the "action" stage of organization development. or to effect necessary changes in its own behavior.

Total Quality Management Overview of Management Tools and Techniques by Ever Vincent D. Soriquez .

Total Quality Management  Total Quality Management / TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. (Ahire. 1997) .

workforce. and customers.Total Quality Management  TQM is based on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services which are offered by an organization. requiring the involvement of management. . suppliers. to meet or exceed customer expectations.

 The word “Quality” suggests excellence in every aspect of the organization. including strategic.  “Management” refers to the pursuit of quality results through a quality management process. pursue quality. manufacturing. . design.Total Quality Management  The word “Total” conveys the idea that all employees. and finance processes. throughout every function and level of organization.

It uses strategy.  Total quality management can be summarized as a management system for a customer-focused organization that involves all employees in continual improvement. data. effective communications and involvement of all level employees to integrate the quality discipline into the culture and activities of the organization. paragraph 3.Formal Definition  Total Quality Management is formally defined in BS 7850-1. . as management philosophy and company practices that aim to harness the human and material resources of an organization in the most effective way to achieve the objectives of the organization.1.

.  Top management must provide the leadership for quality  Quality is a strategic issue  All functions of the company must focus on continuous quality improvement  Quality problems are solved through cooperation among employees and management  Use statistical quality control methods in problem solving  Training and education of all employees are the basis for continuous quality improvement.Principles of TQM  The customer defines quality.

during change there will be increased costs. Juran was one of the first to think about the cost of poor quality. This was illustrated by his "Juran trilogy". an approach to cross-functional management. but after the improvement. margins will be higher and the increased costs get recouped. Three aspects of quality managerial systems:  quality planning  quality control  quality improvement . Without change.Juran Trilogy Joseph M. there will be a constant waste.

Elements of Quality Systems  Policy. planning. training.product liability and user safety  Sampling and other statistical techniques . organization. and motivation  Legal requirements . and administration  Product design assurance and specification development  Control of purchased materials and component parts  Production quality control and assurance  Customer contact  Corrective and preventive action  Employee selection.

Quality Policies  Mission statement outlines the specific need the firm’s product or service meets  Corporate policies (apply to everyone)  Departmental policies (not relevant to any other department worker)  Policies must be consistent with company’s strategy (buying from a low-cost bidder may be inconsistent with the strategy of high quality products) .

Deming’s 14 points for Management 1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement Adopt the new philosophy Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality End the practice of awarding business on the basis of a price tag. 5. 4. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service Institute training on the job Institute leadership . 2. 3. 7. 6.

Drive out fear. Eliminate slogans. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement 14. 9. Eliminate work quotas. Instead substitute with leadership 12.Deming’s 14 points for Management 8. 13. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation . and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity 11. Eliminate management by numbers and numerical goals. so that everyone may work effectively for the company Break down barriers between departments 10. exhortations.

Deming’s 14 points for Management .