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Applications – Users access distributed databases through applications .   A Distributed Database(DDB) is a collection of multiple logically interrelated databases distributed over a computer network A distributed database management system is a software system that manages a distributed database while making distributing transparent to the user.

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 Local Application is an application that does not require data from other sites Global Application is an application that does require data from other sites  .

 Homogeneous ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ All sites have identical software Are aware of each other and agree to cooperate in processing user requests Each site surrender part of its autonomy in terms of rights to change schemas Appears to the user as a single system  Heterogeneous ◦ Different sites use different schemas and different software  Difference in schema may cause problem with query processing  Different software will cause problem when processing transactions ◦ Sites may not be aware of each other any provide limited facilities for cooperation in transaction processing .

Local User Distributed DBMS Global User Global Schema Identical DBMS Software DBMS Software DBMS Software DBMS Software DBMS Software DBMS Software .

n Software .Global User Local User Distributed DBMS Global Schema Local User Non Identical DBMS Software DBMS -1 Software DBMS Software DBMS – y6 Software DBMS Software DBMS .

 Federated database systems ◦ There is some global view or schema of the federation of databases that is shared by the applications ◦ Each server is an independent and autonomous centralized DBMS that has its own local users. transactions  Multidatabase systems ◦ No global schema ◦ Builds schema as needed .

. SQL-99 each has won set of dataypes comparison operators etc. Problems with FDBS ◦ Difference in Data Models  Network and hierarchical ◦ Differences in constraints ◦ Differences in query languages  SQL-89. SQL-92.

    Extend communication to allow the transfer of queries and data among sites Extend system catalog to store data distribution details Extended concurrency control to maintain consistency of replicated data Extend recovery services to take account of failures of individual sites and common links .

     All copies of the same data are always identical Data updates are immediately applied to all copies throughout network Data integrity High over head slow response times .

     Some data inconsistency is tolerated Data update propagation is delayed Lower data integrity Less overhead And Faster response time .

Makes the user unaware of the existence of copies ◦ Fragmentation Transparency – Relation is partitioned into several fragments stored in distinct sites . Management of Distributed Data with different levels of transparency ◦ Distribution(network) transparency – refers to freedom for the user from the operational details of the network ◦ Replication transparency – copies of data may be stored at multiple sites for better availability. performance and reliability.

    Software cost and Complexity Processing overhead Data Integrity Slow Response .