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Careers and career management

Per Stokstad

• ”The sequence of employment-related positions, roles,activities and
experiences encountered by a person • (Greenhaus 2000)

as ell as unemployment. nor to conventional career paths involving increasing seniority within a single occupation and/or organisation • The term employment-related means that activities such as training. education and voluntary work. can be considered elements of a persons`s career. Employment includes selfemployment and short-term contracts . we are interested in how it relates to his or her past and future • The inclusion of experiences emphasises that careers are subjective as well as objective • Careers are not confined to professional and managerial occupations. Instead of looking at a person`s present job in isolation.Several points can be made about it • The notion of sequence means ”more than one”.

both in terms of hours worked per week.Current trends in careers • Increasing workload for individuals. and the intensity of effort required during each working hour • Organisational changes (delayering and downsizing) • More global competition • More team-based work • more short-term contracts • Increasingly frequent changes in the skills required in the workforce • More part-time jobs • Changing workforces • More self-employment and employment in small organisations • Working at or from home • Increasing pressure on occupational-based pension schemes .

as well as younger ones. It includes the following • A greater need for individuals to look ahead and ensure that they update their skills and knowledge to remain employable (lifelong learning) • Organisations need to look ahead in order to develop the skills and knowledge required for future survival • Less frequent promotions within organisations • Less time is left over for a person to consider his or her future • A greater need for individuals to make an effort to build up and maintain their networks of contacts • A greater need for older people.These mean significant changes in the nature of jobs and careers. to initiate and cope with change • A greater need for skills of entrepreneurship. self management and small business management .

• A greater need for individuals to be able to handle uncertainty • A greater need for individuals to be flexible in terms of the work they are prepared to do. and the people with whom they are able to work constructively .

but there is a disagreement about whether or not recent trends in the labour market reflect a big and lasting change .• Careers are becoming more varied and more difficult to manage for both individuals and organisations.

Career forms • It is still tempting to view careers in the narrow sense of predictable moves to jobs of increasing where growth occurs through development of competence to take on complex tasks rather than through promotion to another job.rests on the capacity to spot opportunities to create valued outputs and build up one`s own organisation or operation . professional and entrepreneurial • Professional . • Entrepreneurial . This is called the bureaucratic career (Kanter) • But he has also identified two other career forms. within a single occupation or organisation.

department. hierarchical levels functions and sets of skills • Hirch and Shanley argue that although the boundaryless career might look liberating. for many people it is deeply threatening and confusing . people move across boundaries between organisations. either by choice or necessity.The boundaryless career • A range of career forms that defy traditional employment assumptions (Arthur and Rousseau) • Careers are boundaryless in the sense that.

People anchors develop and become clear during their earlier career. motives.Career anchors • It is an area of the self-concept that is so central that he or she would not give it up even if forced to make a difficult choice. It consists of a mixture of abilities. needs and values (Schein) . as a result of experience and learning from it.

examples • • • • • • • • Managerial competence Technical/functional competence Security Autonomy and independence Entrepreneurial creativity Pure challenge Service/dedication Lifestyle integration .Career anchors.

or on more subjective things such as a sense of accomplishment and having a balanced life • Personal characteristics. behavioural strategies and human resource strategies have all been shown to influence career success .Career success • It can be based on observable things such as status and salary.

The psychological contract • It concerns an individual employee`s perceptions of his or her rights and obligations with respect to the employing organisation. employers frequently break their side of the contract . In the eyes of individuals.

or change its demands on inhabitants • Self-directed search ask the respondent about his or her preferred activities. investigative. enterprising. seeks new congruent ones. abilities. conventional (Holland) • People find environments satisfying when environmental patterns resemble their own personality patterns • Incongruent interactions stimulate change in behaviour • An environment expels incongruent people. realistic. reactions to occupational titles. competencies and even daydreams. It makes it easy for a person to see him or herself what occupations seem to be most suitable . social.Career choice • Six personality types. artistic.

all affect how successful his or her career decision-making is . his or her style of decision-making.Making career decisions • Self-awareness • Knowledge of occupations • Putting self-knowledge and occupational knowledge together • Career exploration and job search • The quality of a person`s career exploration. and belief in his or her own abilities.

typical age 45-64 • Disengagement. perhaps after one or two false starts. and broadened the focus from career to other domains of life) • Exploration of both self and world of work in order to clarify the selfconcept and identify occupations which fit in. characterised by decreasing involvment in work and tendency to become an observer rather than a participant. the concern now is to hold onto the niche one has carved for oneself. and makes efforts to prove his or her worth in it.Development through the lifespan Donald Super identified four career stages in his early work: (he later loosened the connection between ages and stages. typical age 65+ . typical age 25-44 • Maintenance. typical ages 15-24 • Establishment. the person find a career field.

Gender and careers • Women and men tend to have different development paths. Career theory and practice still reflects men`s perspective better than women`s .

Career management interventions in organisations • • • • • • • • • • • Internal vacancy notification Career paths career workbooks Career planning workshops Computer-assisted career management Individual counselling Training and educational opportunities Personal development plans Career action centres Development centres Mentoring programmes .

Career management interventions in organisations • • • • • Coaching Succession planning Job assignment/rotation Outplacement Secondment . .com/jobs/careerzone.asp http://www.self-directed-search.Relevant websites • • • •