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Chapter 14

Working & Writing in Groups

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved

14-1

Interpersonal Communication
 Crucial for teamwork and building trust  Includes multiple skills
 Listening  Conflict resolution  Nonverbal

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved

14-2

Offer to help solve the problem McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Active Listening  To create active responses 1. Mirror speaker’s feelings 3. All Rights Reserved 14-3 . Ask for information/clarification 4. Paraphrase content 2.

All Rights Reserved 14-4 .Avoid Listening Errors To reduce errors  Paraphrase what the speaker has said  Check your understanding with speaker  Write down key points  Don’t ignore instructions that seem unnecessary  Consider speaker’s background McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Preaching. criticizing 3. Minimizing the problem 5. threatening 2. Advising McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Ordering. All Rights Reserved 14-5 .Five Blocking Responses 1. Interrogating 4.

All Rights Reserved 14-6 . data. processes  Interpersonal—focus on people. cooperation.Group Interactions: Three Dimensions  Informational—focus on content: problem. solutions  Procedural messages—focus on methods. group loyalty McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Life Stages of Group Interactions Formation Coordination Formalization McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved 14-7 .

All Rights Reserved 14-8 . opinions Task Goals Coordinating McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Positive Roles in Groups Seeking information. opinions Giving information.

All Rights Reserved 14-9 .Positive Actions in Groups  Encouraging participation  Relieving tensions  Checking feelings  Solving interpersonal problems  Listening actively McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All Rights Reserved 14-10 .Negative Actions in Groups      Dominating Clowning Overspeaking Blocking Withdrawing McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All Rights Reserved 14-11 . resolve conflict. keep members informed.Group Leadership  Informational—create. check on assignments McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. monitor process  Procedural—set agenda. assess ideas and text  Interpersonal—check feelings.

Understand what group has to deliver Identify problem Gather information Establish criteria Generate alternative solutions Measure alternatives against criteria Choose best solution ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4. 3.Decision-Making: Standard Agenda 1. All Rights Reserved 14-12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin . 7. 5. 6. 2.

set clear deadlines. All Rights Reserved 14-13 .Attributes of Successful Student Groups  Assign specific tasks. schedule frequent meetings  Listen carefully to each other  Establish proportionate work loads McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Attributes of Successful Student Groups  Develop inclusive decision-making style  Listen to criticism and improve performance  Deal directly with conflicts McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved 14-14 .

Peer Pressure & Groupthink  Groupthink—tendency for groups to value agreement so highly they punish dissent  Correctives to groupthink  Search for alternatives  Test assumptions  Protect rights of individuals to disagree McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved 14-15 .

what they expect from group      Gender Class Race Ethnicity Age Religion Sexual orientation Physical ability McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Diverse Groups  Differences affect how people behave in group. All Rights Reserved 14-16 .

Nonverbal Communication  Open body positions  Leaning forward with uncrossed arms and legs  Arms away from body  Closed (defensive) body positions  Leaning back. All Rights Reserved 14-17 . hands behind head  Arms and legs crossed  Hands in pockets McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Repair negative feelings McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Search for alternatives 5.Conflict Resolution 1. All Rights Reserved 14-18 . Discover needs each person is trying to meet 4. Make sure people involved actually disagree 2. Ensure that everyone has correct information 3.

All Rights Reserved 14-19 .Constructive Responses to Criticism     Paraphrasing Checking for feelings Checking inferences Buying time with limited agreement  Using you-attitude McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All Rights Reserved 14-20 .Effective Meeting Guidelines      Make purpose explicit Distribute an agenda Allow time for discussion Use omnibus motion Pay attention to people and process as well as tasks  Summarize consensus  Summarize decisions McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All Rights Reserved 14-21 .Collaborative Writing  Working with other writers to produce a single document  Requires attention to—  Group formation progress  Conflict resolution  Steps in writing process McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

build loyalty  Attend all meetings. carry out your duties McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Make Group Process Work  Note that people express themselves differently  Don’t assume total agreement  Allow ample time to discuss problems  Get to know group members. All Rights Reserved 14-22 .