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Designing HRD Interventions


Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Phase One: Needs Assessment


Where training is needed

What kinds of training are needed

Who needs to be trained Conditions for training

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Phase Two: Designing the Training or HRD Intervention

Key activities include: Setting objectives Selecting the trainer or vendor Developing lesson plans Selecting methods and techniques Preparing materials Scheduling training
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Three parts: Performance Conditions Criteria

Source: R. F. Mager (1997).

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What is to be done e.g.,
Increase upper body strength Assemble a chair Catch a football pass Graduate from college

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Conditions under which performance is done e.g., using standard conditioning equipment using a screwdriver and hammer at a full run under man-to-man coverage without cheating or outside help
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The level of acceptable performance e.g., by 25 percent within one year within one hour without mistakes at least 80% of the time without penalties within 5 years and with a B average
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Sample Objectives
Inventory 1,000 pieces of bulk merchandise an hour with an error rate of less than 1% using industry standard inventory tools.
Run 40 yards in less than five seconds on a dry, level field with winds less than 10 mph.
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Sample Objectives
After training, be able to identify the four basic stages involved in HRD within five minutes. Completely assemble one childs bicycle within one hour using common hand tools and instructions provided on December 24 without cursing.
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Make or Buy Decisions

You cannot be an expert on everything You cant afford to maintain a full-time staff for once-a-year training
You cant afford the time or money to build all of your own training programs Implication: Much training is purchased, rather than self-produced
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Factors to Consider Before Purchasing an HRD Program

Level of expertise available/required Timeliness Number of trainees Subject matter Cost Size of HRD organization X Factor (other conditions)
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Other Factors to Consider

Vendor credentials Vendor background Vendor experience Philosophical match (between vendor and organization) Delivery method

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Other Factors to Consider 2

Content Actual product Results Support Request for proposal (RFP)

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HRD Interventions and their applications in organizations-

Werner & DeSimone (2006)


Selecting the Trainer

Training competency

How well can he/she train? If they cant train, why are they employed? How well is the material understood?

Subject Matter Expertise

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If No Subject-Matter Experts (SMEs) are Available

Use a team to train
Use programmed instruction or CBT Train your trainers

You are training subject matter experts to be trainers

You are not training trainers to be SMEs

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Preparing Lesson Plans

Content to be covered Activity sequencing Selection/design of media Selection of trainee activities Timing and phasing of activities Method(s) of instruction Evaluation methods to be used
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Training Methods
Methods Instructor-led Classroom Programs Self-Study, Web-based Job-based Performance Support Public Seminars Case Studies Role Plays Games or Simulations, Non-computer-based Self-Study, Non-computer-based Virtual Classroom, with Instructor Games or Simulations, Computer-based Experiential Programs Virtual Reality Programs Media Workbooks/Manuals Internet/Intranet/Extranet CD-ROM/DVD/Diskettes Videotapes Teleconferencing Videoconferencing Satellite/Broadcast TV Audiocassettes Percent 91 44 44 42 40 35 25 23 21 10 6 3 79 63 55 52 24 23 12 4

SOURCE: From 2003 Industry Report (2003). Training, 40(9), 2138.

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Types of Training
Computer Applications New Hire Orientation Non-Executive Management Tech. Training Communications Skills Sexual Harassment Supervisory Skills Leadership New Equipment Operation Performance Management/Appraisal Team Building 96 96 91 90 89 88 88 85 85 85 82 Computer Programming Personal Growth Managing Change Problem Solving/Decision Making Time Management Train-the-Trainer Diversity/Cultural Awareness Hiring/Interviewing Strategic Planning Customer Education Quality/Process Improvement 76 76 75 75 74 74 72 71 69 68 65

Customer Service
Product Knowledge Executive Development Safety

79 78 77

Public Speaking/Presentation Skills

Basic Life/Work Skills Ethics Sales Wellness

62 61 55 54

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Selecting Training Methods

Consider the following:
Program objectives Time and money available Resources availability Trainee characteristics and preferences
Note: Training methods are covered in Ch. 6.
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Training Materials
Program announcements Program outlines Training manuals and textbooks Training aids, consumables, etc.

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Scheduling Training
Must be done in conjunction with:
Production schedulers Shift supervisors Work supervisors/managers Trainees

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Training During Normal Working Hours

Issues to consider:

Day of week preferred Time of day Peak work hours Staff meeting times Required travel
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Training After Working Hours

Are workers/trainees getting paid? If so, by whom?
What about personal commitments? What do you do for shift workers?

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Registration and Enrollment Issues

How, when, and where does one register? Who is responsible for logistics?

Travel Lodging Meals Etc.

How do one cancel/reschedule?

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As in building a house, design issues must be addressed before training:

Objectives Who will conduct the training Lesson plan Appropriate methods/techniques to use Materials needed Scheduling issues
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