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Organizational Behavior, 9/E

Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn
Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 19 Study Questions
 What is organizational culture?  How do you understand an organizational

culture?
 How can the organizational culture be

managed?
 How can you use organizational

development to improve the firm?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 2

Study Question 1: What is organizational culture?
 Organizational culture.
– The system of shared actions, values, and

beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.
– Called corporate culture in the business

setting.
– No two organizational cultures are identical.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 3

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 4 . • Separating eternal forces based on importance. and methods of coping with success and failure. • Creating explanations for not meeting goals. methods used to achieve the goals. • Developing ways to measure accomplishments.Study Question 1: What is organizational culture?  External adaptation. – Involves reaching goals and dealing with outsiders regarding tasks to be accomplished. – Important aspects of external adaptation.

– – – – – – – – – What is the real mission? How do we contribute? What are our goals? How do we reach our goals? What external forces are important? How do we measure results? What do we do if specific targets are not met? How do we tell others how good we are? When do we quit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 5 .Study Question 1: What is organizational culture?  External adaptation involves answering important goal-related questions regarding coping with reality.

Study Question 1: What is organizational culture?  Internal integration. • Separating friends from enemies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 6 . • Developing an understanding of acceptable and unacceptable behavior. – Important aspects of working together. – Deals with the creation of a collective identity and with finding ways of matching methods of working and living together. • Deciding who is a member and who is not.

– What is our unique identity? – How do we view the world? – Who is a member? – How do we allocate power.Study Question 1: What is organizational culture?  Internal integration involves answering important questions associated with living together. status. and authority? – How do we communicate? – What is the basis for friendship? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 7 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 8 . – A group of individuals with a unique pattern of values and philosophy that are not inconsistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy.  Counterculture. – A group of individuals with a pattern of values and philosophy that outwardly reject the surrounding culture.Study Question 1: What is organizational culture?  Subculture.

Study Question 1: What is organizational culture?  Problems associated with subcultural divisions within the larger culture. – Embracing natural divisions from the larger culture may lead to difficulty in international operations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 9 . – The firm may encounter extreme difficulty in coping with broader cultural changes. – Subordinate groups are likely to form into a counterculture pursuing self-interests.

– Step 4: The organization should break the linkage between naturally occurring group identity and organizational identity. – Step 2: The organization should fully integrate its structure. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 10 .Study Question 1: What is organizational culture?  Taylor Cox’s five step program. – Step 1: The organization should develop pluralism. – Step 5: The organization must actively work to eliminate identity-based interpersonal conflict. – Step 3: The organization must integrate the informal networks.

Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 11 .

 Rituals. – Heroic accounts of organizational accomplishments. or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture?  Sagas. – Systems of rites. – Any object. act.  Rites.  Cultural symbols. – Standardized and recurring activities that are used at special times to influence organizational members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 12 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 13 . • Where individual members stand in the social system. • The various types of actions that are appropriate. – Rules.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture?  Culture often specifies rules and roles. – Roles.

– Tie the organization to the important values of society. – Help turn routine activities into valuable and important actions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 14 .Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture?  Shared values. – May provide a very distinctive source of competitive advantage.

– A widely shared real understanding of what the firm stands for. policies. and adherence to job duties.Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture?  Characteristics of strong corporate cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 15 . procedures. – A concern for individuals over rules. often embodied in slogans. – A recognition of heroes whose actions illustrate the company’s shared philosophy and concerns.

– A well-understood sense of the informal rules and expectations so that employees and managers know what is expected of them. – A belief in ritual and ceremony as important to members and to building a common identity. – A belief that what employees and managers do is important and that it is essential to share information and ideas.). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 16 .Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture?  Characteristics of strong corporate cultures (cont.

– Myths enable managers to redefine impossible problems. – Unproven and often unstated beliefs that are accepted uncritically. – Myths can facilitate experimentation and creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 17 .Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture?  Organizational myths. – Myths allow managers to govern.

– Widely held common assumptions may be traced to the larger culture of the host society. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 18 .Study Question 2: How do you understand an organizational culture?  National culture influences. – National cultural values may become embedded in expectations of organization members.

– Managers help modify observable culture. – Use of organizational development techniques to modify specific elements of the culture.Study Question 3: How can the organizational culture be managed?  Strategies for managing corporate culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 19 . and common assumptions directly. shared values.

– Helps hold individuals together by showing them a known path to success.Study Question 3: How can the organizational culture be managed?  Why a well-developed management philosophy is important. – Establishes generally understood boundaries on all members of the firm. – Provides a consistent way for approaching new and novel situations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 20 .

Study Question 3: How can the organizational culture be managed?  Strategies for building. – Fostering a culture that addresses questions of external adaptation and internal integration. reinforcing. – Changing the lessons to be drawn from common stories. and changing organizational culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 21 . – Setting the tone for a culture and for cultural change. – Directly modifying the visible aspects of culture.

– Attempting to revitalize an organization by dictating major changes and ignoring shared values. • Without recognizing the importance of individuals.Study Question 3: How can the organizational culture be managed?  Mistakes that managers can make in building. and changing culture. – Trying to change people’s values from the top down: • While keeping the ways in which the organization operates the same. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 22 . reinforcing.

– The application of behavioral science knowledge in a long-range effort to improve an organization’s ability to cope with change in its external environment and to increase its internal problem-solving capabilities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 23 .Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Organization development (OD).

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Organizational development. – Seeks to achieve change so the organization’s members maintain the culture and longer-run organizational effectiveness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 24 . – Designed to work on both issues of external adaptation and internal integration. – Used to improve organizational performance.

• Belief that groups can be good for both people and organizations. – Individual level. • Respect for people and their capabilities.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Underlying assumptions of OD. • Respect for the complexity of an organization as a system of interdependent parts. – Group level. – Organizational level. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 25 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 26 . • Mainly deal with issues of internal integration. • Mainly deal with issues of external adaptation.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Organization development goals. – Process goals. – Outcome goals.

OD helps by: – Creating an open problem solving climate. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 27 . – Supplementing formal authority with knowledge and – – – – competence. Moving decision making where relevant information is available. Allowing people to exercise self-direction and selfcontrol. Building trust and maximizing collaboration. Increasing the sense of organizational ownership.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  In pursuing outcome and process goals.

– The process of systematically collecting data on an organization. and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data after the planned actions have been taken. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 28 .Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Action research. feeding it back to the members for action planning.

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 29 .

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 30 .

Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Organizationwide OD interventions. • Activities for quickly determining how an organization can be improved and taking initial actions for betterment. – Survey feedback. – Confrontation meetings. • Collection and feedback of data to organization members for action planning purposes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 31 .

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 32 .). • Realigning the organization’s structure or major subsystems.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Organizationwide OD interventions (cont. • Using representative organizational members in periodic small group problem-solving sessions. – Structural redesign. – Collateral organization.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 33 . • Activities to improve the functioning of a group. • Activities to improve the functioning of key group processes. – Team building. – Process consultation. – Intergroup team building. • Activities to improve the functioning or two or more groups.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Group and intergroup OD interventions.

– Job redesign. – Role negotiation. • Creating long-term congruence between individual goals and organizational career opportunities. • Clarifying expectations in working relationships. • Structured opportunities for individuals to work with managers or staff experts on career issues.Study Question 4: How can you use organization development to improve the firm?  Individual OD interventions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 34 . – Career planning.

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