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• Work environment means the milieus

around a person. It is the social and professional environment in which a person is supposed to interact with a number of people.

It is not important that an office would always be called your work place. It can be your home environment where you use to work for all the time where you are supposed to interact with your

• A comfortable work environment should

concentrate in terms of ambience, recreational facilities, climate control, cleanliness and fixtures. • The interiors have been specially designed to ensure a healthy work environment — both psychologically and physiologically. • The colors should be bright and attractive to create a positive impact on the employees.

 people who are happy within their

working environment will work far more effectively and happily than those who are uncomfortable.  certain aspects have to be considered for the employees to work more effectively.

• The remedies are usually quite simple i.e.Noise • Noise leads to increased levels of stress. and clearly marking any 'high noise' areas . providing your employees with hearing protection. rotating the staff who work close to noisy machinery to decrease their exposure times. Noise is normally caused by loud machines and so when buying any new plant or machinery remember to check the noise emission levels.

body odour) Adequate ventilation can be provided by simply allowing windows . tobacco smoke. fumes.Ventilation • Fresh air is one of the most • • • • important elements of a working environment for several reasons: respiration the removal of excess heat the dilution of various airborne impurities (dust.

Temperature • The minimum temperature for sedentary work is 16 degrees Celsius (about 60 degrees Farenheit) • work involving physical effort the minimum should be 13 degree celsius (about 55 degrees Farenheit). employees should be provided with the correct clothing and extra work pauses to allow recovery. .e. • Where extreme temperatures apply i. work involving furnaces or freezing compartments.

All light fittings should be kept clean and ideally the ceiling should be light coloured to reflect the light. there should be no glare.Lighting • The various reasons why lighting is • • • • important in the workplace are: to illuminate potential hazards to prevent eye strain There are various other considerations such as. . and there should be no sudden contrast in levels of lighting.

Stress • Stress is becoming a more and more • • • • • • • important issue in the world of work it can be caused by many factors the nature of work the pace of working payment systems repetition and monotony shift work the behavior of other employees Although different employees will react differently to different situations so it is difficult to prevent stress occurring. .


 Protection of a persons physical health  Industrial safety or employee safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of industrial accidents.SAFETY  Safety in simple terms means freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. .

• Reduce accidents. . absenteeism and labor turnover.NEED FOR SAFETY HEALTH AND • Promote and maintain the highest degree of physical. social and mental well being of workers. • Protect workers against any health hazards arising out of work or conditions in which it is carried on. injuries. • Improve productivity and quality of work.

HEALTH AND SAFETY RESPONSIBILITY HR UNIT Co-ordinates health and safety programs Develops safety reporting system Offers accident investigation expertise Provides technical expertise on accident prevention Trains managers to recognize and handle difficult employee situation MANAGER Monitors heath and safety of employees daily Train employee to be safety conscious Investigates accidents Observe health and safety behavior of employees Follow safety provisions and security procedures and recommend changes as needed .



 Indirect cost are three to four times higher than the Direct cost.COST SAVING  Two types of cost are incurred by the management when an accident occurs *Direct cost(compensation payable if the accident is fatal). *Medical expenses for treating the patient if the accident is non-fatal. .

.  Safety promotes productivity.INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY  Safety plants are efficient plants.  Employees in safe plants can devote more time on improving the quality and quantity of their output and spend less time worrying about their safety and well being.

 Managers must undertake accident prevention measures.  An employee is both a “Worker” in the factory and “Bread winner” for his family.  Monetary compensations are given to employees who meet accidents but………… .MORAL  Safety is important on humane grounds too.


 Penalties for non-compliance have become quite severe. .  Responsibility extends to the safety and health of the surrounding community too.LEGAL  There are laws covering occupational health and safety.

SAFETY PROGRAMME Safety program deals with the prevention of accidents and with minimizing the resulting loss and damage to person and property. Five basic principles must govern the safety program of an organization. they are .

but these have to be to their root cause. which are usually faults in the management system like Poor leadership from the top  Inadequate supervision  Insufficient attention to the design of safety into the system and  Poor training facilities .FIVE PRINCIPLES  Industrial accidents result from a multiplicity of factors.

FIVE PRINCIPLES  The most important function is to identify potential hazard.inspections and investigations  Methods of ensuring that safety equipments is maintained and used . This is possible only  Effective system for reporting all accidents causing damage or injury  Adequate accident records and statistics  Systematic procedures for carrying out safety checks. provide effective safety facilities and equipment and to take prompt remedial action.

.  The management and the supervision must be made fully accountable for safety performance in the working areas they control.FIVE PRINCIPLES  The safety policies of the organisation by the top management and it must be continuously involved in monitoring safety performance.

.FIVE PRINCIPLES  All employees should be given thorough training in safe methods of work and they should receive continuing education and guidance on eliminating safety hazards and prevention of accidents.


Some organizations for financial reasons prefer minimum level of protection .STRATEGIC CHOICES  The first step in a safety program is for management to make decisions regarding safety of their workers.while others choose maximum.  Many of the decisions are based on strategic choices available to the organizations. some of the strategic choices are Level of protection the organization will provide for employees. .

 Managers can decide to use the safety of workers as a marketing tool for the organisation. Formal program will have written regulation. Proactive managers will improve the safety measures prior to the need & reactive managers fix safety problems after they occur.  Managers can also be proactive or reactive in developing procedures.informal regulations are enforced through peer pressure. . Managers can decide whether a safety program will be formal or informal.

 Policy specifies the companies goals and designates the responsibilities and authority for their achievement.  Safety policy must contain a declaration of the organization. the four fundamental points that a policy should contain .SAFETY POLICY  The second step in a safety program is to have a safety policy.

 Every effort will be made to involve all managers. supervisors. The safety of employees and the public is of paramount importance  Safety will take precedence over expedience.  Safety legislation will be compiled according to the law. . and employees in the development and implementation of safety procedures.

investigating .ORGANISATION FOR SAFETY  The third step in a safety program.  The committee take the responsibility of reviewing safety procedures making recommendations for eliminating health hazards.  Companies constitute safety committees which are composed of employees from across the organization.

. Many companies employ safety specialist to design and handle the day to day activities of the safety program.  Responsibility of employee safety devolves on the HR department.

broadly they can be classified as  Systematic  organic .PROGRAM EVALUATION  The sixth step in safety program.  Several methods exist for gauging the effectiveness of safety program.

ORGANIC MEASURE  Three techniques are used to measure organic safety effectiveness  Safety inspection  Safety audit  comparison .

After inspection a report of the finding is made to the management. management & employee attitude towards safety. Safety inspection – Inspectors are given specifics to follow. managerial effectiveness in maintaining safety. rather than simply determining existing safety oversights. .  Safety audit – It is an in-depth analysis of facilities. overall performance in controlling the operations safety is the audits quest.

. Comparison – The purpose here is to compare the experience of a plant or industry with that of another which is comparible.