Photovoltaic Devices Photovoltaic effect recognized In 1839 followed by the first photovoltaic cell in 1883. Converts energy from the sun directly into electricity Used to power or recharge portable devices and for residential commercial use.

Solar Thermal Electric Power Plant
The first application of solar thermal in 1767 known as ‘hot box’, later in 1891 the first solar thermal system was built.

Generate electricity indirectly from the sun. Most commonly used Solar Power Tower, Parabolic Trough.
Used in large electric power production and for residential commercial use.



.Solar Panels are made up of a collection of solar cells that are then bonded to a sheet of glass.. It converts sunlight into electricity which can be used immediately or stored in a battery.Solar Cell is made of semiconductors. like silicon. that has special material properties that allow the sun light that strikes a cell to be absorbed in the material. .

to prevent damage by over discharge.Charge controller . .Protects against wrong connection of the battery and reverse voltage to the panel.Also known as charge regulator. . monitors the battery's charge state. Batteries .This battery is designed to be fully charged and discharged over and over again without causing damage.Stores the power generated by the solar modules during the day to be used during the night.The type of battery used is Deep Cycle (Lead Acid) Maintenance Free type.Protect the battery from discharging. below its lowest acceptable voltage. . . .

DC-AC inverters are used to convert Direct Current (DC) from the battery into Alternating Current (AC) to run AC appliances.Types of inverters available are Stand-alone inverters.DC-AC Inverter . Synchronous inverter and multi-function inverter Stand-alone Inverter Synchronous Inverter Multi-function Inverter . .

Construction of Solar Electric Plant .

~ Solar Power Tower ~ .

turns the turbine blades to generate electricity. . Storage Tanks ~ Stores fluid. 1 SOLAR POWER TOWER 4 5 6 Condenser ~ Condense exhaust steam from the steam turbine Turbine ~ Receives steam and channels it back to steam from steam generator that generator. 3 2 Molten Salt ~ Stores the sun's heat and release it in a controlled manner for steady steam turbine power generation. concentrated solar radiation and transform it to thermal power. one at high temperature and one at low temperature.Heliostat ~ Mirrors which reflects the sun’s energy to the correct Central Receiver ~ Receives spot on the tower.

~ Parabolic Trough ~ .

absorbs sunlight. It receiver that can can be either a standard Fluid ~ Normally oil. a hydraulic drive System. 3 6 PARABOLIC TROUGH Collector Interconnect ~ Connects the receivers on two adjacent collectors and allows them to track independently.Allows the collector to rotate. so the mirrors and receiver can track the sun. 2 1 Mirrors ~ Usually coated with silver or polished aluminum. maintaining them in optical alignment . accept optical input motor and gear box configuration or can use increases temperature from any direction.Collector ~ Structure of collector must : . .Withstands external forces(winds). and heats steam in turbine. . 5 4 Steel tube ~Surrounded by a glass envelope to Drive ~ Positions the reduce convection heat collector to track the losses. Reflects the suns energy to the receiver.Supports the mirrors and receivers. Functions as a sun during the day.

P h o t o v o l t a i c G E N E R A T I O N P R O C E S S .

The charge controller will also protect the battery from discharging below its lowest acceptable voltage. The role of the charge controller is to regulate the voltage and current from the solar cells before it is stored in the battery. The solar cells will convert sunlight directly into electricity (DC). . an inverter is used to change the Direct Current (DC) to Alternating Current (AC) to power most AC appliances. The electricity from the solar cells is stored in the battery for immediate or later . It monitors the condition of the battery state of charge and protects the battery from being over-charged.Converts energy from the sun into electricity. Multiple solar or photovoltaic cells are connected to form a solar module. Where required.



Solar Power Tower .

Parabolic Trough .

2. Reduced maintenance costs. 5. It is available most abundantly in areas with a high number of sunshine hours. Local application. 7. Greatly reduced pollution. Infinite energy resource. . Greatly reduced contribution to global warming. Initial installation cost may be too expensive. Solar panels require large land/roof areas to be effective. 4. 4. 1. 6. Low running costs. DC power must be converted to AC power before it can be used. Falling production costs.1. 2. 3. 5. 3. It is not directly available at night or under cloud cover.

there is a difference. – Solar Thermal requires much less space than PV. – Difficult to add thermal walls and other passive solar collectors to an existing home which gives an advantage to PV. a solar panel is the same as a solar module. – Solar Thermal are 5 times cheaper than PV. • • “Why we don't use more solar energy?” 1) The energy intensity of solar energy is relatively low. but even within the solar industry there is no clear cut answer. 2) The technology is expensive.• With the threat of global warming. For all practical purposes. Differences between Solar panels and Solar Modules : – Technically. Solar Thermal Vs Photovoltaic. – Solar thermal space heating system will sit idly by during the long summer months while a solar PV system will provide usable electricity all year. . and the gradual depletion of petroleum supplies. – Solar Thermal has an efficiency of 70% whereas PV 12%.

It does not hurt the environment and it is a renewable energy source. • Also learned about structures of Photovoltaic Panels. electric motors and even refrigerators. . Solar Thermal and how it works.• Solar power is a good alternative energy source. such as flashlights. • Learned how solar energy can be used to make electricity and power everyday appliances. • Two ways to capture the suns energy. It can also be used to heat water and cool buildings. • Can be used to power houses and their electronic appliances. by Photovoltaic devices and Solar Thermal Electric Power Plant.


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