Managing Change and Innovation

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Categories of Change
People Structure

Technology
2

External Forces of Change
Competition Government Programs

Economic Conditions

Technology
3

Internal Forces of Change

Internal Operations

Impact of External Events
4

Agents of Change
Managers Outside Consultants Staff Specialists

5

Lewin’s Three-Step Process

Unfreezing

Changing

Refreezing

The “Calm Waters” Metaphor

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Lack of Stability

Lack of Predictability

White-Water Rapids
Virtual Chaos Constant Change
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The Change Process
• The Calm Waters Metaphor
– Change viewed as a break in the organization’s equilibrium state
• Unfreezing the status quo • Changing to a new state • Refreezing to make the change permanent

• White-Water Rapids Metaphor
– No stability and predictability – Organizations must constantly change to survive

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Resistance to Change
Uncertainty and Ambiguity Fear of Personal Loss Lack of Faith in Change
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Techniques for Reducing Resistance
Education and Communication Negotiation Manipulation and Cooptation Participation Facilitation and Support Coercion
10

Techniques for Managing Change
Structure Authority Technology Processes People Attitudes Behavior
11

Coordination Methods Expectations CentralizationEquipment

Organizational Development Techniques
• Intergroup development • Process consultation • Survey feedback • Team building
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Constraints

Demands

What Is Stress?
Uncertainty Importance
13

Task Demands Role Demands Interpersonal Demands Structural Dimensions Leadership Techniques
14

Organizational Stress Factors

Personal Stress Factors
Family Personality Economic

15

Stress

Physiological

Psychological

Behavioral
Three General Symptoms
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Stress Management
• Selection and placement • Job redesign • Participation • Wellness programs • Employee assistance
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What Is Creativity?

• Combining new ideas in unique ways or associating ideas in unusual ways

What Is Innovation?

• Turning creative ideas into useful products, services, or methods of operation
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The Creative Process

Perception

Incubation

Inspiration

Innovation
19

Structural Variables

Sources of Innovation

Organizational Culture

Human Resources
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