INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
• The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history. average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth . Most notably. almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way.

• Trade . • Capitalism.INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • Human labour began to be replaced with human thought. • Emergence of middle class. • Mass production. • Migration.

Emergence of Departmental store .

went into partnership with William Alder Dunn and opened a draper’s and fashion in Market Street. . despite the name change to 'John Lewis'. aged 21.United Kingdom • John Lewis Newcastle (formerly Bainbridge) in Newcastle upon Tyne is the world’s oldest department store. Newcastle. • The Newcastle institution dates back to 1838 when Emerson Muschamp Bainbridge. • It is still known to many of its customers as Bainbridge.

Lewis's experimented in new ways of advertising (such as flooding the basement of the Manchester store to create a mini Venice. London (Selfridges). Birmingham .Lewis's • By 1956. It started in Liverpool in 1856. Liverpool (1856). Bristol and Leicester . Liverpool (The Bon Marche). Glasgow. Lewis's had the largest stores in the provinces of the UK.) • Since 1856 it had stores in Manchester (1877). Hanley. Leeds.

and by 1852 it offered a wide variety of goods in "departments" inside one building. • Goods were sold at fixed prices. had served up to three million customers and was affiliated with La Samaritaine. . • By the end of the 19th century. Georges Dufayel.France • Aristide Boucicaut founded Le Bon Marché in Paris in 1838. with guarantees that allowed exchanges and refunds. a large French department store established in 1870 by a former Bon Marché executive. a French credit merchant.

Ireland • As Le Bon Marché evolved into a department store in the early 1850s. Delany's New Mart opened in 1853 in Dublin. Ireland on Sackville Street (now O'Connell Street) .

a Welsh merchant who met Hobart businessman Charles Appleton in London.Australia • David Jones (Australia) was started by David Jones. • Appleton had established a store in Sydney in 1825 and Jones subsequently established a partnership with Appleton. moved to Australia in 1835. and the Sydney store became known as Appleton & Jones .

and advertised a policy of providing "free entrance" to all potential customers. toys and sports equipment. Though it was clad in white marble to look like a Renaissance palazzo. glass and china. . the building's cast iron construction permitted large plate glass windows. with eight floors and nineteen departments of dress goods and furnishing materials. ranged around a central glass-covered court.New York City • In New York City in 1846. opposite Grace Church. Alexander Turney Stewart established the "Marble Palace" on the east-Broadway. He offered European retail merchandise at fixed prices on a variety of dry goods. between Chambers and Reade streets. carpets. • In 1862 Stewart built a department store on a full city block at Broadway and 9th Street.

Declaration of Rights of Women. Civil War in the US . California) • 1861-1865. Marshall at Sutter's Mill. the right to vote • 1849. Elias Howe patents Sewing Machines • 1836. in Coloma. Gold Rush to California(when gold was found by James W.EVENTS • 1830-1848. Louis Daguerre invented the first practical photographic method • 1848. French Revolution • 1846.

Arts & craft movement .

The medieval court of the 1851great exhibition designed and supervised by Pugin shows style of decoration .

. Table sand Chairs were offered.The image here is of the catalogue offered at the great exhibition in 1851. Novelty of Form as well as much ornamentation was obvious. No one style dominated. Cabinets . to Tudor to Gothic under the umbrella of early Victorian Design proliferated . everything from revived rocco.

R. Ashbee Augustus Welby Pugin Frank Lloyd Wright .LEADING EXPONENTS • • • • • John Ruskin William Morris C.

function and decoration.John Ruskin proposed 1. but for some practical or noble end. Never encourage the manufacture of an article not absolutely necessary. in the production of which Invention has no share. 2. Never encourage imitation or copying of any kind. 3. . A search for a means to exemplify the natural unity between from. Never demand an exact finish for its own sake. except for the sake of preserving records of great works.

• To them. . • Decoration. when used.OBJECTIVE • Rejected this use of unnecessary decoration • The need for a new design ethos to clearly express the function of the thing itself • To emphasize the materials and quality of construction. lacking ornament and achieving a ‘noble simplicity’ as a result. was to be in harmony with these principles. the most impressive objects in the Great Exhibition were the machines and utensils because they were designs of absolute utility.

as an ‘art of the unconscious intelligence’. decorative painting and design.fashioned with beautiful & well crafted buildings. • Morris described decorative art historically as a natural form of human feeling and expression. . textiles. • Promoted a fondness for purity and simplicity in good solid. hand-crafted furniture. metalwork and printing. tapestries & ceramicswould improve the fabric of society.THE CALL FOR REFORM • William Morris expressed the idea that a well designed environment. stained glass. furniture. • ‘What business have we with art at all if we all cannot share it’.

the Arts and Crafts Movement became the symbol for the "liberal middle class“.FOCUS  By 1880.  The movement strove to make:  Survival of traditional methods of handcraftsmanship and the comprehensive vision of craftsman throughout the design process  personal aesthetics and the individualism  develop the working conditions of artisans & craftsman  art affordable to all people  To improve the quality of life for everyone by restoring integrity to the objects common to daily life  Educate public taste .

New York. from 1902-32 Periodicals and Magazines . published in Syracuse. This was probably the single most influential journal of the movement. and through it many of the English architects and designers gained international repute and a large following • Links between the British and American Arts and Crafts Movement were strengthened by publications such as Elbert Hubbard's journal The Fra • Gustave Stickley's more practically orientated Craftsman. the internationally orientated arts and crafts publication. The Studio.H.• The Century Guild Hobby Horse was founded by A. Mackmurdo in 1884 • Charles Rickets followed with The Dial in 1889 • Aubrey Beardsley published The Yellow Book in 1896 The Savoy in 1896 • In 1893.

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.1877 wallpaper Natural plants bird and animal forms were a powerful source of inspiration for many of designer.

William Morris .

Wall hanging by William Morris Stained glass window .

-Charles Rennie Mackintosh -Tiffany studios -Century guild -The art workers guild -The art and craft exhibition society -Guild of handicraft . -Liberty & Co.Important Designers & Guilds -Morris & Co.

the revival of ‘lost’ craft techniques and the enhancement of natural texture are all elements which.There is no single recognizable style that was Arts & Crafts. . Proportion . whimsical & self-consciously artistic. combined to create Arts & Crafts style. simplicity of form. fitness for purpose. An interior could be exotic and precious. with rich colours & patterns. added to hand-craftsmanship. honesty to materials. or downright plain & homely.

The Arts and Crafts movement returned designers to the concepts of craftsmanship. by the end of the Arts and Crafts Movement in the first quarter of the 20th century. . simplicity of decoration. Ironically. and forms derived from nature. the products of the movement became so expensive that only the wealthy could afford them.

removing unnecessary decoration. . and form particularly of plants and flowers.derived from nature. but the principles of nature as ornament inspired Art Nouveau. Its principles of simple and functional construction led to The Modern Movement of the 1920’s.• The heritage of the Arts and Crafts movement influenced two directions: design simplicity.

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