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Plumbing

Definition all the piping and fixtures that provide water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and laundry, as well as a means of disposing of wastewater.

Codes
Why is it important to follow codes? If it is not up to code it will not pass inspection and will have to be torn out and redone becoming very costly. If it is poorly designed then it will not work well and owner will be unsatisfied. Could cause wastewater to mix with potable water if not installed properly. Different codes: The Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), Basic Building Code, ICBO Plumbing Code, National Plumbing Code, and Standard Plumbing Code Each code is sponsored by a professional organization Once code is adopted by government then it can be enforced as a law. Plumbers should know different codes in places they are working.

Two Separate Systems


Water Supply System: This system distributes water under pressure throughout the structure for drinking, cooking, bathing, and laundry. Its a two pipe system, one with cold and one with hot. Must be watertight because of the strong pressure system. DWV (drainage, waste, and venting) System: This system carries away wastewater and solid waste from bathrooms, kitchens, and laundries and is not under pressure. Must be well vented because it prevents back pressure and siphoning of water from traps.

Tools
Measuring Tools: rules, tapes, squares, levels, transits, plumb bobs, chalk lines, compasses, and dividers Plumbing requires precise measuring and the tools they use must be capable of achieving this accuracy. Cutting Tools: various saws, files, chisels, snips, and pipe cutters most use power tools because they save time and effort and most are metal-cutting reaming and threading tools are also when working with metal pipe Wrenches: pipe wrenches, pliers, vice grips, chain wrenches, strap wrenches, monkey wrenches, and adjustable wrenches

Materials
Copper: available as rigid lengths or flexible coils can be cut with a pipe cutter or hacksaw joined with compression fittings or by sweat solder Plastic: available in lengths and can be cut with a handsaw joined with fittings and special adhesive 4 types: Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), Polybutylene (PB), Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Iron: soft cast iron made from gray iron does not leak or absorb water and is very quiet two types of cast iron soil pipe: Service (SV) and Heavy (XH)

Valves

devices that control the flow of water in the water supply system put in certain places so the water can be shut off or pressure can be reduced made from bronze, brass, malleable iron, cast iron, thermoset plastic, and thermoplastic faucets valves that permit controlled amounts of water as needed for use in a building; deliver to such fixtures as sinks, lavatories, showers, and bathtubs

Fixtures

water-using devices, such as sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, bidets, urinals, stools, or showers they receive water from the supply system and are set up to deliver wastewater to the DWV system

Print reading

certain symbols have been standardized for the plumbing trade 3 types of sketches: riser diagrams, plan view sketches, and isometric sketches

Installing Plumbing

the first phase of plumbing installed in a building is known as a rough-in the endings of pipes that extend out from the walls and above the floors are known as stub-ins vent stacks are venting pipes that are connected to a large riser that extends through the roof

Wells and Pumps


many houses and buildings outside of city limits have their own wells which require pumps and supply tanks to maintain a constant water supply wells are lined with casing the keeps contaminates from getting into the water Drilled Wells: percussion method a chisel-shaped bit is raised and lowered by a cable creating a pounding action that breaks up the subsurface material rotary method used when water table is far below the surface; tall mast and water create slurry that is pumped to the surface and discarded Bored Wells: made with earth auger that cuts and lifts subsurface material

Safety

safety goggles should always be worn hard hats should be used if there is any danger of falling objects non-flammable clothing should be worn when welding as well as protective gloves when handling plumbing material but not when using power tools; also protective shoes are a good measure to take jewelry should never be worn lifting and carrying heavy materials should always be done properly