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© Fluent Inc.

5/31/2013 M1
Fluids Review
TRN-98-004
CFD Modeling of Turbulent Flows

© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M2
Fluids Review
TRN-98-004
Overview
 Properties of turbulence
 Predicting turbulent flows
 DNS
 LES
 RANS Models
 Summary
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Properties of Turbulence
 Most flows encountered in industrial processes are turbulent.
 Turbulent flows exhibit three-dimensional, unsteady, aperiodic motion.
 Turbulence increases mixing of momentum, heat and species.
 Turbulence mixing acts to dissipate momentum and the kinetic energy in the
flow by viscosity acting to reduce velocity gradients.
 Turbulent flows contain coherent structures that are deterministic events.
Time
u
( ) t u u u ' + =
( ) t u'
u
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Role of Numerical Turbulence Modeling
 An understanding of turbulence and the ability to predict turbulence for any
given application is invaluable for the engineer.
 Examples:
 Increased turbulence is needed in chemical mixing or heat transfer when
fluids with dissimilar properties are brought together.
 turbulence increases drag due to increased frictional forces.
 Historically, experimental measurement of the system was the only option
available. This makes design optimization incredibly tedious.
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Characteristics of the Engineering Turbulence
Model
 Numerical modeling of turbulence can serve to improve the engineers ability
to analyze turbulent flow in design particularly when precise measurements
cannot be obtained and when extensive experimentation is costly and time-
consuming.
 The ideal turbulence model should introduce minimal complexity while
capturing the essence of the relevant physics.
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Modeling Turbulent Flows
 Turbulent flows can be modeled in a variety of ways. With increasing levels of
complexity they are:
 Correlations
 Moody chart, Nusselt number correlations
 Integral equations
 Derive ODE’s from the equations of motion
 Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes or RANS equations
 Average the equations of motion over time
 Requires closure
 Large Eddy Simulation or LES
 Solve Navier-Stokes equations for large scale motions of the flow. Model
only the small scale motions
 DNS
 Navier-Stokes equations solved for all motions in the turbulent flow
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Turbulence Modeling Approaches
Zero-Equation Models

One-Equation Models

Two-Equation Models
Standard k-c
RNG k-c
Second-order closure
Reynolds-Stress Model

Large-Eddy Simulation

Direct Numerical Simulation
Include
More
Physics
Increase
Computational
Cost
Per Iteration
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Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)
 Currently DNS is the most exact approach to modeling turbulence since no
averaging is done or approximations are made
 Since the smallest scales of turbulence are modeled, called the Kolmogoroff
scale, the size of the grid must be scaled accordingly.
 A DNS simulation scales with Re
L
3
(u´L/v) where Re
L
~ 0.01Re. Turbulent
flow past a cylinder would require at least (0.01 x 20,000)
3
or 8 million cells
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Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)
 Given the current processing speed and memory of the largest computers, only
very modest Reynolds number flows with simple geometries are possible.
 Advantages: DNS can be used as numerical flow visualization and can
provide more information than experimental measurements; DNS can be used
to understand the mechanisms of turbulent production and dissipation.
 Disadvantages: Requires supercomputers; limited to simple geometries.
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Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
 LES is a three dimensional, time dependent and computationally expensive
simulation, though less expensive than DNS.
 LES solves the large scale motions and models the small scale motions of the
turbulent flow.
 The premise of LES is that the large scale motions or eddies contain the larger
fraction of energy in the flow responsible for the transport of conserved
properties while the small.

t
u
DNS
LES
DNS
LES
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Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
 The large scale components of the flow field are filtered from the small scale
components using a wavelength criteria related to the size of the eddies
 The filter produces the following equation used to model the small scale
motions


 where

 The inequality is then modeled as

 t
ij
is called the subgrid scale Reynolds Stress. Different subgrid scale models
are available to approximate t
ij
.
( )
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
i
j
j
i
j i j
j i
i
x
u
x
u
x x
p
x
u u
t
u
µ
µ
µ
j i j i
u u u u =
( )
j i j i ij
u u u u ÷ ÷ = µ t
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Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
 Mixing plane between two streams with unequal scalar concentrations
 Unsteady vortex motions with growing length scale
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M13
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Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Models
 DNS and LES can produce an overwhelming quantity of detailed information
about a flow structure. Generally, in engineering flows, such levels on
instantaneous information is not required.
 Typical engineering flows are focused on obtaining a few quantitative of the
turbulent flow. For example, average wall shear stress, pressure and velocity
field distribution, degree of mixedness in a stirred tank, etc.
 The approach would be to model turbulence by averaging the unsteadiness of
the turbulence.
 This averaging process creates terms that cannot be solved analytically but
must be modeled.
 This modeling approach has been around for 30 years and is the basis of most
engineering turbulence calculations.
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M14
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 Velocity or a scalar quantity can be represented as the sum of the mean value
and the fluctuation about the mean value as:

 Using the above relationship for velocity(let | = u) in the Navier-Stokes
equations gives (as momentum equation for incompressible flows with body
forces).




 The Reynolds Stresses cannot be represented uniquely in terms of mean
quantities and the above equation is not closed. Closure involves modeling the
Reynolds Stresses.
RANS Equations
( ) t ' | | | + =
( )
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
÷ = ' ' +
c
c
+
c
c
i
j
j
i
j i
j i j i
j
i
x
u
x
u
x x
p
u u u u
x t
u
µ µ µ
µ
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M15
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Closure of RANS equations
 The RANS equations contain more unknowns than equations.
 The unknowns are the Reynolds Stress terms.
 Closure Models are:
 zero-equation turbulence models
 Mixing length model
 no transport equation used
 one-equation turbulence models
 transport equation modeled for turbulent kinetic energy k
 two-equation models
 more complete by modeling transport equation for turbulent kinetic
energy k and eddy dissipation c
 second-order closure
 Reynolds Stress Model
 does not use Bousinesq approximation as first-order closure models
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M16
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 RANS equations require closure for Reynolds stresses and the effect of
turbulence can be represented as an increased viscosity




 The turbulent viscosity is correlated with turbulent kinetic energy k and the
dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy c
Modeling Turbulent Stresses in Two-Equation
Models
c
µ µ
µ
2
k
C
t
÷
Turbulent Viscosity:
Boussinesq Hypothesis:
eddy viscosity model
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+ ÷ = ÷
i
j
j
i
t ij j i
x
u
x
u
k u u µ o µ µ
3
2
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M17
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Turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation
 Transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate are solved
so that turbulent viscosity can be computed for RANS equations.

Turbulent
Kinetic Energy:
Dissipation Rate of
Turbulent Kinetic Energy:
( )
z z y y x x i i
u u u u u u u u k ' ' + ' ' + ' ' = ' ' =
2
1
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
÷
i
j
j
i
j
i
x
u
x
u
x
u
v c
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M18
Fluids Review
TRN-98-004
Standard k-c Model
Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Dissipation Rate
c c c
o o
2 1 ,
, , C C
k
are empirical constants
(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)
Convection
Generation Diffusion
Dissipation

µc o µ µ µ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
        
        
  
i
k t
i i
j
j
i
i
j
t
i
i
x
k
x x
U
x
U
x
U
x
k
U ) (
Destruction
Convection
Generation Diffusion
           
            
  
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
c
k
C
x x x
U
x
U
x
U
k
C
x
U
i
t
i i
j
j
i
i
j
t
i
i
2
2 1
) (
c
µ
c
o µ µ
c c
µ
c c c
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M19
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TRN-98-004
Deficiencies of the Boussinesq Approximation
 The two-equation models based on the eddy viscosity approximation provide
excellent predictions for many flows of engineering interest.
 Applications for which the approximation is weak typically are flows with
extra rate of strain (due to isotropic turbulent viscosity assumption). Examples
of these are:
 flows over boundaries with strong curvature
 flows in ducts with secondary motions
 flows with boundary layer separation
 flows in rotating and stratified fluid
 strongly three dimensional flows
 The RNG k-c model is an improvement over the standard k-c for these classes
of flow by incorporating the influence of additional strains rates.
 A higher-order closure approximation can be also applied to include wider
class of problems including those with extra rates of strain.


© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M20
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TRN-98-004
RNG k-c Model
Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Dissipation Rate
Convection Diffusion
Dissipation
 
µc µ o µ µ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+ =
c
c
      
  
i
k
i
t
i
i
x
k
x
S
x
k
U
eff
2
Generation
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
÷ ÷
j
i
i
j
ij ij ij
x
U
x
U
S S S S
2
1
, 2
where
are derived using RNG theory
c c c
o o
2 1 ,
, , C C
k
(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)
Additional term
related to mean strain
& turbulence quantities
Convection Generation Diffusion Destruction

R
k
C
x x
S
k
C
x
U
i i
t
i
i
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
c
         
       
2
2 eff
2
1
c
µ
c
µ o µ
c c
µ
c c c
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M21
Fluids Review
TRN-98-004
Second-Order Closure models
 The Second-Order Closure Models include the effects of streamline curvature,
sudden changes in strain rate, secondary motions, etc.
 This class of models is more complex and computationally intensive than the
RANS models
 The Reynolds-Stress Model (RSM) is a second-order closure model and gives
rise to 6 Reynolds stress equations and the dissipation equation






k
ijk
ij ij ij
k
ij
k
x
J
P
x
R
U
c
c
+ ÷ u + =
c
c
c
Reynolds Stress Transport Equation
Generation
Pressure-Strain
redistribution
Dissipation
Diffusion
Convection
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M22
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TRN-98-004
Reynolds Stress Model
Generation
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
÷
k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u P µ
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
' ÷ ÷ u
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u
p
k
j
k
i
ij
x
u
x
u
c
c
c
c
÷ µ c 2
Pressure-Strain
Redistribution
Dissipation
Turbulent
Diffusion
(modeled)
(related to c)
(modeled)
(computed)
(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)
Pressure/velocity
fluctuations
Turbulent
transport
         
k j i ik j jk i ijk
u u u u p u p J µ o o + ' + ' ÷
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M23
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Near Wall Treatment
 The RANS turbulence models require a special treatment of the mean and
turbulence quantities at wall boundaries and will not predict correct near-wall
behavior if integrated down to the wall
 Special near-wall treatment is required
 Standard wall functions
 Nonequilibrium wall functions
 Two-layer zonal model
© Fluent Inc. 5/31/2013 M24
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Comparison: RNG k-c vs. Standard k-c
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Summary
 Turbulence modeling comes in varying degrees of complexity. Determining
the right choice of turbulence model depends on the detail of results expected.
 DNS and LES are still far from being engineering tools but in the near future
this will be possible.
 Two-equation models are widely used for their relatively simple overhead.
However, increased complexity of the turbulent flow reduces the adequacy of
the models.
 Improvements to the two-equation models to incorporate extra strain rates, and
the second-order closure RSM model provide the extra terms to model
complex engineering turbulent flows.