MICROBIOLOGY

WITH DISEASES BY BODY SYSTEM SECOND EDITION

Chapter 11 Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotes
Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms

• Prokaryotes – Most diverse group of organisms – Habitats – From Antarctic glaciers to thermal hot springs – From colons of animals to cytoplasm of other prokaryotes – From distilled water to supersaturated brine – From disinfectant solutions to basalt rocks – Only a few capable of colonizing humans and causing disease

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms [INSERT FIGURE 11. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings ..1] Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.

General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms • Reproduction of Prokaryotic Cells – All reproduce asexually – Three main methods – Binary fission (most common) – Snapping division – Budding Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings ..

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. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms • Arrangement of Prokaryotic Cells – Result from two aspects of division during binary fission – Planes in which cells divide – Separation of daughter cells Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.

. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.

General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .

. health care professionals. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms • Endospores – Produced by Gram-positive Bacillus and Clostridium – Each vegetative cell transforms into one endospore – Each endospore germinates to form one vegetative cell – Constitute a defensive strategy against hostile or unfavorable conditions – Serious concern to food processors. and governments Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.

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Modern Prokaryotic Classification • Currently based on genetic relatedness of rRNA sequences • Three domains – Archaea – Bacteria – Eukarya Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings ..

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or spiral forms. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings . budding.. Euryarchaeota. or fragmentation • Most are cocci. pleomorphic forms exist • Not known to cause disease Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.Survey of Archaea • Common features – Lack peptidoglycan – Cell membrane lipids have branched hydrocarbon chains • Classified in three phyla: Crenarchaeota. Korarchaeota • Reproduce by binary fission. bacilli.

and/or salinity to survive – Prominent members are thermophiles and halophiles Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .Survey of Archaea • Extremophiles – Require extreme conditions of temperature. pH..

and proteins do not function properly below 45ºC – Hyperthermophiles – require temperatures over 80ºC Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings . cytoplasmic membranes.Survey of Archaea • Extremophiles – Thermophiles – DNA. RNA.

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. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .Survey of Archaea • Extremophiles – Halophiles – Inhabit extremely saline habitats – Depend on greater than 9% NaCl to maintain integrity of cell walls – Many contain red or orange pigments. require protection from visible and UV light – Most studied – Halobacterium salinarium Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.

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. hydrogen gas. lake. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings . one of primary sources of environmental methane – Have produced ~10 trillion tons of methane that is buried in mud on ocean floor Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.Survey of Archaea • Methanogens – Largest group of archaea – Convert carbon dioxide. and ocean sediments to methane – Some live in colons of animals. and organic acids to methane gas – Convert organic wastes in pond.

publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings . but stains Gram-positive Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.Survey of Bacteria • Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria – Deeply branching bacteria – Scientists believe these organisms are similar to earliest bacteria – Autotrophic – Live in habitats similar to those scientists think existed on early Earth – Aquifex – considered to represent earliest branch of bacteria – Deinococcus – has outer membrane similar to Gram-negatives..

Survey of Bacteria • Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria – Phototrophic bacteria – Phototrophs that contain photosynthetic lamellae.. autotrophic – Divided into five groups based on pigments and source of electrons for photosynthesis – Blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria) – Green sulfur bacteria – Green nonsulfur bacteria – Purple sulfur bacteria – Purple nonsulfur bacteria Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .

Survey of Bacteria • Low G+C Gram-Positive Bacteria – Mycoplasmas – Facultative or obligate anaerobes – Lack cell walls – Smallest free-living cells Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .

.Survey of Bacteria • Gram-Negative Proteobacteria – Alphaproteobacteria – Nitrogen fixers – Azospirillum – Rhizobium – Nitrifying bacteria – Nitrobacter – Purple nonsulfur phototrophs Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .

.Survey of Bacteria Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .

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