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BASIC MARKETING CONCEPTS

WHAT IS MARKETING ?

ANY INTERPERSONAL AND INTERORGANISATIONAL RELATIONSHIP INVOLVING AN EXCHANGE IS MARKETING . WILLIAM J.STANTON

What Is Marketing?
Simple Definition: Marketing is managing profitable customer relationships. Goals: 1. Attract new customers by promising superior value. 2. Keep and grow current customers by delivering satisfaction.

WHAT IS MARKETING ?

The essence of Marketing is a transaction an exchange- intended to satisfy human needs and wants. There are three elements in the marketing process : (A) MARKETERS (B)WHAT IS BEING MARKETED (C) TARGET MARKET

NEEDS,WANTS AND DEMANDS

NEED : A state of felt deprivation of some basic satisfaction ( Food, Clothing, Shelter, Belonging etc. ) WANTS : Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of the deeper needs. Needs are few and wants are many . DEMANDS : are wants backed by -----Ability to buy and Willingness to buy

This Is a Need
Needs - state of felt deprivation including physical, social, and individual needs.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

This Is a Want
Wants - form that a human need takes, as shaped by culture and individual personality.

Need / Want Fulfillment

Needs and Wants Fulfilled through a Marketing Offer :

Some combination of products, services, information, or experiences offered to a market to satisfy a need or want.

This Is Demand
Wants Buying Power

Demand

PRODUCTS / OFFERS / SATISFIERS / RESOURCES

Anything that can be offered to someone to satisfy a need or want is a product .

Product refers to physical object


Services refer to intangible object

VALUE AND SATISFACTION

Value is the customers estimate of the Products capacity to satisfy a set of goals Value is the ratio between what the customer gets and what he gives (V=B/C) Customer gets benefits & assume costs
WHEN :Customer

Expectance=Performance (satisfied) Customer Expectance>Performance (dis-satisfied) Customer Expectance<Performance (Highly satisfied)

Value and Satisfaction


Expectation
8

Performance
10

Expectation
10

Performance
8

If performance is lower than expectations, satisfaction is low.

If performance is higher than expectations, satisfaction is high.

EXCHANGE AND TRANSACTION

Exchange is the act of obtaining a desired product by offering something in return .


Exchange takes place when 5 conditions are satisfied: Two parties should be there Each party must have something of value to the other Each party is capable of communication & delivery Each party is free to accept or reject the offer Each party believes that it is appropriate to deal with the other party

(a)

(b) (c) (d) (e)

EXCHANGE AND TRANSACTION

Exchange is a process rather than event. It is a value creating process because it normally leaves both parties better off. A transaction is a trade of values between two or more parties ( A BARTER TRANSACTION OR A MONETARY TRANSACTION ).

WHAT IS MARKET ?

A market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want.

WHAT IS MARKETING ?

Marketing is the management process which identifies, anticipates, and supplies customer requirements efficiently and profitably. In other words, it is the process of understanding, creating, and delivering profitable value to targeted customers better than the competition.

WHAT IS MARKETING ?

Its aim is to establish, maintain, enhance long term relationship with customers at a profit so that the objectives of the parties involved are met. In short marketing consists of attracting, developing, and retaining profitable customers.

WHAT IS MARKETING ?
Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others PHILIP KOTLER This definition includes following core concepts : NEEDS ,WANTS and DEMANDS --- PRODUCTS-----VALUE & SATISFACTION---EXCHANGE & TRANSACTION---MARKETS & MARKETERS

BUSINESS IS MARKETING

Marketing can not be considered as a separate function , it is the whole business, seen from the point of view of its final results.................that is profit,through customer satisfaction
PETER DRUCKER

Marketing Myopia

Sellers pay more attention to the specific products they offer than to the benefits and experiences produced by the products. They focus on the wants and lose sight of the needs.

Marketing Myopia suggests that businesses will do better in the end if they concentrate on meeting customers needs rather than on selling products.

The Myopic culture, would pave the way for a business to fail, due to the short-sighted mindset and illusion that a firm is in a so-called 'growth industry'. This belief leads to complacency and a loss of sight of what customers want.

A short-sighted and inward looking approach to marketing that focuses on the needs of the company instead of defining the company and its products in terms ofthe customers' needs and wants. It results in the failure to see and adjust to the rapid changes in their markets.

WHAT IS MARKETING

MANAGEMENT ?

Marketing Management is the analysis, planning, implementation and control of programs designed to create, build and maintain beneficial exchanges and relationships with target markets for the purpose of achieving Organisational objectives.

WHAT IS MARKETING

MANAGEMENT

Marketing management is demand management or it involves the task of influencing the level, timing and composition of demand. At times the actual demand level may be below, equal to, or above the desired demand level and the major task of marketing management is to regulate the level of demand.

STATE OF DEMAND AND MARKETING TASK

State of demand
Negative Demand No Demand Latent Demand Falling Demand Irregular Demand Full Demand Overfull Demand Un-wholesome Demand

Marketing task
Conversional Mktg. Stimulational Mktg. Developmental Mktg. Remarketing Synchro-marketing Maintenance Mktg. Demarketing Counter-marketing

EVOLUTION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Marketing management has evolved through following stages : (1) Production Orientation Stage (2) Sales Orientation Stage (3) Marketing Orientation Stage (4) Social Responsibility & Human Orientation Stage

Marketing Management Philosophies

Societal Marketing Concept

Marketing Concept Selling Concept


Product Concept Production Concept

MARKETING CONCEPTS

There are FIVE competing concepts under which organizations conduct their marketing activities:
The Production Concept The Product Concept The Selling Concept The Marketing Concept The Societal Marketing Concept

(1) THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT

Company

Produce Sell

Produce more & more


Consumers Practically sells itself

THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT

Consumers will favour those products that are widely available and low in cost. Therefore increase production and cut down costs. And build profit through volume.

(2) THE PRODUCT CONCEPT

Produce Quality Products Sell

Practically sells itself,if it gives most quality for money Consumers

Buyers admire well-made products and can appraise product quality and performance.

THE PRODUCT CONCEPT

Consumers will favour those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features. Therefore, improve quality, performance and features. This would lead to increased sales and profits.

(3) SELLING CONCEPT

Consumers have normal tendency to resist.

Produce
Sell it

Aggressive selling & promotion efforts

Consumers

Making sales becomes primary function and consumer satisfaction secondary .

THE SELLING CONCEPT

Consumers , if left alone , will not buy enough of companys products. Therefore, promote sales aggressively. And,build profit through quick turnover.

(4) MARKETING CONCEPT

LOVE THE CUSTOMER , NOT THE PRODUCT


Learn what they want

Produce it

Consumers
Market it Sell what they want(Satisfy needs of customers)

THE MARKETING CONCEPT

The key to achieving organizational goals consist in determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors. And build profit through customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Societal Marketing Concept

(5) THE SOCIETAL MARKETING CONCEPT

It is Marketing Concept (+) Societys well being.


Balancing of following three considerations while setting marketing policies : -Customers want satisfaction - Societys well being -Companys profits

THE SOCIETAL MARKETING CONCEPT

The societal marketing concept holds that the organizations task is to determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the consumers and the societys well being. - It addresses conflicts between consumers and firms short run wants and long term welfare.

SELLING AND MARKETING CONCEPT CONTRASTED

Starting point Factory

Target Market

Focus Means Products Selling and Promoting Selling Concept Custome Coordinated r Needs Marketing Marketing Concept

Ends Profit through Sales Volume Profit through Customer Satisfaction

STRATEGIC CONCEPT OF MARKETING

Shifted the focus of Marketing from Product to the CUSTOMER IN THE CONTEXT OF THE BROADER EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT . To succeed, marketers must know the customer in a context including the competition, Govt. Policy& regulation and the broader economic, social and political macro forces that shape the evolution of market.

STRATEGIC CONCEPT OF MARKETING

Shifted the Marketing Objectives from PROFIT TO STAKEHOLDER BENEFITS.


Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have an interest in the activity of a company . They include-----The employees and management,
Customers, Society, Shareholders, Financiers/ Bankers, Government etc.

STRATEGIC CONCEPT OF MARKETING

Marketing Concept is Strategic Management, which integrates marketing with the other management functions. ( Major task is Profit for Stakeholders benefits ).

MARKETING SYSTEM

Marketing is concerned with the flow of goods and services from the points of production to the points of consumption. There is a systematic arrangement of these functions of marketing to move the goods and services to the needy persons. This system is essential to the creation of time, place and possession utilities.

A SIMPLE MARKETING SYSTEM

Communication
Goods & Services

Industry
Money

Market

Information/Feedback

MARKETING SYSTEM

A dynamic marketing system must be willing to undertake the following specific activities : 1. Define market area. 2. Research consumer wants and needs. 3. Develop and redevelop product / service. 4. Select, train, motivate and control human resources. 5. Develop sales approach and advertising support.

GOALS OF THE MARKETING SYSTEM

(1) MAXIMIZE CONSUMPTION (2) MAXIMIZE CONSUMER SATISFACTION (3) MAXIMIZE CHOICE (4) MAXIMIZE LIFE QUALITY

THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING

The essence of marketing can be summarized in three great principles. The first identifies -the purpose and task of marketing, -the second the competitive reality of marketing and - third the principal means for achieving the first two.

THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING

(1) .

The Customer Value and Value Equation : V=B/P Where; V=Value B= Perceived Benefits P= Price

(Value is increased by increasing the numerator and/or reducing the denominator)

THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING


(2).Competitive or Differential Advantage : The total offer must be more attractive than that of the competition in order to create a competitive advantage. (3).Focus or the Concentration of

Attention : The task of creating


Customer Value at a Competitive advantage.

VALUE MAP

Value Disadvantaged Area Perceived Price

VEL

E
A

C B D
Value Advantaged Area

Customer Perceived Benefits

CUSTOMER AS THE CONTROLLING FUNCTION

Production

Finance

CUSTOMER

Marketing

Personnel

MARKETING AS THE INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION

Production
Marketing
CUSTOMER

Personnel

Finance

THREE LEVELS OF MARKETING

Responsive Marketing

Anticipative Marketing
Need Shaping Marketing

RESPONSIVE MARKETING

It is the form of marketing when some company defines an existing clear need and prepare an affordable solution. (Recognizing that women wanted to spend less time for cooking and cleaning, led to the invention of modern washing machine, microwave oven etc.)

ANTICIPATIVE MARKETING
It is a form of marketing when a company recognize an emergent or latent need, and come out with an affordable solution. Evian, Perrier anticipated growing market for bottled drinking water as the quality of water deteriorated in many places. Anticipative marketing is more risky than responsive marketing;companies may come into market too early or too late,or may even be totally wrong about thinking that such a market would develop.(eg. Dish washers in India)

NEED SHAPED MARKETING


The broadest level of marketing occurs when a company introduces product that nobody asked for and often could not even conceive of.
(e.g. Sony Walkman, Sony Compact Disc )

Late Akio Morita, founder and chairman of Sony, who introduced these and many other new products, summarized his marketing philosophy in these words: I dont serve markets. I create them.

MARKET- DRIVEN AND MARKET- DRIVING COMPANY

Market-driven companies focus on researching current customers to identify their problems, gather new ideas, develop products that result in incremental improvements, not radical innovations. Market-driving companies generate significantly new products, services, business formats and raise our sights and our civilization. These companies are much more than customer-led. They lead customer where they want to go, but dont know yet.