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Prepared by:

Nursyamin bt Khairuddin (12273208031)

INTRODUCTION
Measles a.k.a. rubeola = highly contagious respiratory infection. It causes = total-body skin rash & flu-like symptoms (include fever, cough & runny nose). Common among children aged 1-4 years & who has not been vaccinated. There are two types of measles -caused by different virus & are different disease.

The rubeola virus - "red measles.


The rubella virus - "German measles," a.k.a. "three-day measles."

STATISTIC IN MALAYSIA

CAUSES
Infection of rubeola virus.

Causing "red measles.


Contained in millions of tiny droplets come out of nose & mouth when infected people coughs or sneezes. When healthy people make contact with the droplets they can get infected. Anyone who has not had measles before can be infected. Most people who not have immunity & sharing house with infected people will develop the condition.

SIGN & SYMPTOMS


4 day fevers- temperature may reach up to 40 C (104 F). 3Cscough, coryza (runny nose) & conjunctivitis (red eyes). Koplik's spots seen inside mouth but not often seen because they are transient & may disappear within a day of arising. Rash is generalized= begins several days after fever starts. It changing from red to reddish brown blotchy appearance before disappearing. Usually shows up on forehead, spreads downward over face, and body, then down to the arms and feet.

COMPLICATIONS`
Most people recover from measles in 10 to 14 days. As many as 20 percent will develop complications, which may include: Ear infection. Bronchitis, laryngitis or croup. Pneumonia. Encephalitis. Pregnancy problems. Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).

TREATMENT
No specific treatment for measles. Children should stay at home & out of school until they cleared from measles.

Get plenty of rest.


Sponge baths with lukewarm water to reduce discomfort due to fever. Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. A humidifier or vaporizer may ease cough.

Pain relievers & fever reducers (ibuprofen) can help with symptoms.
Never give aspirin to children or teenagers- may cause Reye syndrome.

PREVENTION
The most effective way to prevent measles is through immunization. Children routinely receive MMR vaccine according to immunization schedule. First dose immunization at 12-15 months of age. Second dose when the child is 4 to 6 years old.

Do not used in people with egg allergies.


Rarely, vaccination can cause a measles-like illness = most common in people with weak immune systems.

PREVENTION
Both types measles still common in areas that do not offer immunization & in people who have not been immunized. Cover mouth when coughing or sneezing & good hand-washing practices will help prevent the spread of the diseases. Special immunization -- immune globulin -- necessary for certain high-risk people after they exposed to measles. Include children <1 year old, children with weakened immune systems, & pregnant women.

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