CHAPTER 2

DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS

Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB. Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively.     . Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant to OB. Contrast intellectual from physical ability. Show how culture affects our understanding of biographical characteristics and intellectual abilities.Learning Objectives   Describe the two major forms of workforce diversity.

.  Demographic characteristics of the workforce      Gender Race Ethnicity Age Disability  Levels of diversity   Surface-level diversity Deep-level diversity  Discrimination Making judgments about individuals based on stereotypes regarding their demographic group. but managers sometimes forget that they need to recognize and capitalize on these differences to get the most out of their employees.Diversity We aren’t all the same. This is obvious enough.

Forms of Discrimination Types of discrimination Definition Discriminatory policies or practices Actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal reward for performance. was laughed at openly by his classmates every time he spoke in class. Sexual harassment Unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile At one company. many workers from Bihar and Utar Pardesh were threatened and asked to leave Mumbai on the pretext that they were taking away jobs from the locals. Mockery and insults Jokes or negative stereotypes. sometimes the results of jokes taken too far. At a prestigious school. a student from rural background who spoke English with a poor accent. or offensive work environment. . Intimidation Overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups employees Recently. the much-married boss asked a young woman team member to and then made sexual advances to her at the hotel. Examples from organizations Older workers may be targeted for layoff because they are highly paid and have lucrative benefits.

or informal mentoring.Forms of Discrimination Types of discrimination Definition Exclusion Exclusion of certain people from Examples from organizations Many women in engineering claim they are job opportunities. or ignoring his or her opinion. Female lawyers note that male att orneys frequently cut them off or do not adequately interrupting the person. address their comments. . social events. Incivility Disrespectful treatment. discussions. assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that don’t lead to promotion. including behaving in an aggressive manner.

Biographical Characteristics Most obvious biographical characteristics are:  Age  Gender  Race  Disability  Other biographical characteristics    Tenure Religion Sexual orientation and gender identity .

Ability The following discussion will cover the deep-level abilities that are clearly related to job performance.  Intellectual abilities Physical abilities The role of disabilities   .

Perceptual speed Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately. . Market researcher: Forecasting demand for a product in the next time period. Inductive reasoning Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem. Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other. Fire investigator: Identifying clues to support a charge of arson.Dimensions of Intellectual Abilities Dimensions Number of Description Ability to do speedy and Examples Accountant: Computing the sales tax on aptitude Verbal comprehension accurate arithmetic. a set of items. Plant manager: Following corporate policies on hiring.

Interior decorator: Redecorating an office. Memory Ability to retain and recall past experiences. Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed.Dimensions of Intellectual Abilities Dimensions Deductive Description Ability to use logic and assess Examples Supervisor: Choosing between two different reasoning Spatial visualization the implications of an argument. . Suggestions offered by employees. Salesperson: Remembering the names of Customers.

   Attracting. Diversity management makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to needs and differences of others. we now look at how a manager can and should manage these differences. and retaining diverse employees Diversity in groups Effective diversity programs   Employment opportunity and fair treatment for all Diverse workforce is better able to serve diverse market of customers  Foster development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers . developing. selecting.Implementing Diversity Management Strategies Having discussed a variety of ways in which people differ.

Summary and Implications for Managers  Ability    An effective selection program will improve the fit between employees and job requirement. .  Diversity management  Comprehensive diversity training programs that address the climate for diversity at multiple levels are more effective than one-shot diversity training sessions.  Biographical characteristics  The managers must be aware of implicit biases that they have. Managers can improve the fit by fine-tuning the job to better match and incumbent abilities. Promotion and transfer decisions affecting individuals already in the organization’s employ should reflect candidate’s abilities.