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SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE

CONTENTS

Sustainable architecture Appropriate material and construction Review of their properties Workability Construction practice Need for legislation Sustainable campus neighbourhood

Program for case study

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

S U STA I N A B L E A R C H I T EC T U R E
Definition
Sustainable architecture is a general term that describes environmentally conscious design techniques in the field of architecture. Sustainable architecture is framed by the larger discussion of sustainability and the pressing economic and political issues of our world. Sustainable architecture is basically taking less from the Earth and giving more to people
Think small

Share your facilities Store your own food

Heat with the sun Keep it cool Use renewable energy

Grow your food

Build to last

Principles of sustainable architecture

Conserve water Use local materials

Recyclable materials Save forest

Use natural materials

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

M AT E R I A L S
One of the most important aspects of a building is that of material choice. What one builds the exterior envelope of their space with affects its ability to breath to retain temperatures and its strength against earthquakes, etc. Today there are a variety of materials to choose from that meet these goals, which are. ADOBE TIMBER BAMBOO CORK RECYCLED RUBBER STRAW COCONUT PALM

Made of clay and dirt Used for insulation Low cost Environment friendly Sustainable

Sustainable Used mainly wood for floors Commercial Extremely wood durable Recyclable Environment Lowest impact friendly on air and water Water resistant quality Sustainable Increasing versatility and S U S TA I N A B strength

Environment friendly Cost efficient Available in hectares sustainable

Renewable Recyclable Resistant to fading Mainly used for flooring sustainable

Environment friendly Cost effective Used as an insulation Sustainable

Alternate for wood Used for flooring Cost effective sustainable

L E A R C H I T E C T U R E

A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

R E V I E W O F M AT E R I A L P R O P E R T Y & WORKABILITY Adobe


Adobe is a natural building material made from sand, clay, water, and some kind of fibrous or organic material which the builders shape into bricks. Adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world.

Workability The traditional adobe roof has been constructed using a mixture of soil/clay, water, sand,straw and other available organic materials. Adobe walls usually never rise above two stories because they are load bearing and have low structural strength

Properties Adobe walls are load bearing.

Adobe has sufficient


compressive strength

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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LIFE CYCLE

Collection of sand

Sand

Brick

Making bricks

ADOBE
Construction Construction Drying Drying

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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M AT E R I A L S A F E T Y DATA

ADOBE
Toxicological information General: Non toxic

Ecological information
Physicochemical Elimination: Adobe is soluble in water. It may be eliminated out of water by a biotic processes or mechanical action. Disposal considerations Product: May be taken to waste disposal site or with construction waste. Rules of the local authorities must be observed.

Packaging: According to local regulations.

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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Timber

R E V I E W O F M AT E R I A L P R O P E R T Y & WORKABILITY

Timber is wood in any of its stages from felling to

readiness for use as structural material for construction,


or wood pulp for paper production. Timber is supplied either rough or finished. Timber is easily available in hardwoods and as well as softwoods. Workability

Properties

Colour Timber as a structural material is similar to steel. Odour Grain Timber members are particularly capable of acting as Density tension, compression and bending members. Texture Compared to steel or concrete, the modulus of elasticity Hardness Wrapping is low. Fire resistance
S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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Recycled timber product Tree

LIFE CYCLE

Logs Destruction

TIMBER

Shaping Construction

Seasoning
S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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Timber

M AT E R I A L S A F E T Y DATA

REACTIVITY DATA CONDITIONS TO AVOID (REGARDING STABILITY): Avoid high temperature exposure. INCOMPATIBILITY (MATERIALS TO AVOID): N/A HAZARDOUS DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS: Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and various hydrocarbons. HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION POSSIBLE (Y/N)? N CONDITIONS TO AVOID (REGARDING POLYMERIZATION): N/A HEALTH HAZARDS ROUTES OF ENTRY: Skin contact, skin absorption, eye contact, and inhalation. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE OVEREXPOSURE: Can cause irritation of skin. May also cause defatting, drying and cracking of the skin. Can cause irritation of respiratory tract. If ingested, can cause irritation; a burning sensitization of the mouth, throat and respiratory tract; and abdominal pain.

CHRONIC OVEREXPOSURE: Can cause dermatitis, defatting, and sensitization to skin. corneal damage and conjunctivitis. If inhaled, can cause mucous membrane irritation, central nervous system depression, respiratory problems. If ingested can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and neural dysfunction. NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM (Y/N): N IARC MONOGRAPHS (Y/N): N OSHA (Y/N): N MEDICAL CONDITIONS GENERALLY AGGRAVATED BY EXPOSURE: None known.
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Bamboo

R E V I E W O F M AT E R I A L P R O P E R T Y & WORKABILITY

A Bamboos environmental benefits arise largely out of its ability to grow and spread quickly Eco-friendly bamboo is being made into eco-friendly fibres High usage in building materials Workability The construction materials for building a bamboo house should be readily available and accessible. The bamboo based house has a very low weight therefore foundations can be minimized. Bamboo can be grown even on degraded land. Construction materials from bamboo should be treated in order to achieve longevity. The use of high energy materials, like cement or steel, is minimized.
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Properties
Light Stiff

Strong

LIFE CYCLE

Recycled Bamboo flooring

Tree

BAMBOO

Cutting

Waste Season Construction


S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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Bamboo
Toxicological information General: Non toxic

M AT E R I A L S A F E T Y DATA

Ecological information Physicochemical


Elimination: Bamboo fiber is insoluble in water. It may be eliminated out of water by a biotic processes or mechanical action. Disposal considerations Product: May be taken to waste disposal site or incineration plant with household waste. Non-coated grades may be recycled together with waste paper. Rules of the local authorities must be observed. Packaging: According to local regulations. (Most probably to be recycled in a waste paper plant.)
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Cork

R E V I E W O F M AT E R I A L P R O P E R T Y & WORKABILITY

Cork is an impermeable, buoyant material. Cork is composed of suberin, a hydrophobic substance, and because of its , elasticity, and fire resistance. The montado landscape of Portugal produces approximately 50% of cork harvested annually worldwide. Workability Cork can be used as bricks for the outer Properties elasticity combined with its nearimpermeability.

walls of houses
Cork can be used instead of wood or aluminium in automotive interiors Cork has been used as a core material in sandwich composite construction.

natural fire resistance make it suitable


for acoustic and thermal insulation in house walls, floors, ceilings and facades.

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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LIFE CYCLE
Collection of cork

Construction

CORK
Curing

Cutting Heating
S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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M AT E R I A L S A F E T Y DATA

Cork
Toxicological information not-toxic; non-putrescible. Hazards Identification Manual or mechanical handling can result in the generation of cork dust. Cork dust can cause nasal dryness, irritation and obstruction. First-Aid Measures Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. Get medical advice if persistent irritation or breathing difficulty occurs. Ingestion: No hazard known for usual practice. Eye contact: Wash the eyes with fresh water. Enable fresh air environment. Skin contact: No hazard known for usual practice. Fire behaviour Granulated cork when pressed burns slowly and does not present any special risk and are not explosion hazard products.
S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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Recycled rubber

R E V I E W O F M AT E R I A L P R O P E R T Y & WORKABILITY

Rubber recycling is the process of recycling vehicles' tires (or tyres) that are no longer suitable for use on vehicles due to wear or irreparable damage. These tires are among the largest and most problematic sources of waste, due to the large volume produced and

their durability.
Workability Tires can be recycled into, among other things, the hot melt asphalt, typically as crumb rubber modifier. There are some green buildings that are made form old tires. Pyrolysis can be used to reprocess the tires into fuel

Properties
unique physical and chemical

properties.
often modeled as hyperelastic. Rubber strain crystallizes.

gasoils and others.

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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LIFE CYCLE
Waste rubber tires

Construction

RECYCLED RUBBER

Grinding

Shaping Cleaning
S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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Rubber

M AT E R I A L S A F E T Y DATA

Potential Health Effects Inhalation: Grinding and sanding this product may generate dust. Dust may irritate throat and respiratory system and cause coughing. Eye Contact: Grinding and sanding this product may generate dust. Dust may irritate the eyes. Decomposition products may cause eye irritation Skin Contact: Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause irritation. Individuals sensitive to small amounts of curing agents present may develop a rash (dermatitis).

FIRE-FIGHTING MEASURES Extinguishing Media: This product is not flammable. Unsuitable Extinguishing Media: Not applicable. Special Fire Fighting Procedures: Use standard fire fighting procedures and consider the hazards of other involved materials. or exposing it to temperatures above 300 C may result in the release of irritating fumes. Hazardous Combustion Products: Alcohols, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons Protective Measures: Self contained breathing apparatus and full protective clothing must be worn in case of fire.
ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES Personal Precautions: Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. Wear necessary protective equipment. Spill Cleanup Methods: Shovel up and place in a container for salvage or disposal. Environmental Precautions: No specific precautions
S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and basket-making. It is usually gathered and stored in a straw bale, which is a bundle of straw tightly bound with twine or wire. Bales may be square, rectangular, or round, depending on the type of baler used. Workability Properties In many parts of the world, straw is used to bind clay and concrete. A mixture of clay and straw, known as Excellent thermal quality cob, can be used as a building material. There are many recipes for making cob. Low environmental impact When baled, straw has moderate insulation characteristics. It can be used, alone or in a post-andbeam construction, to build straw bale houses.

Straw

R E V I E W O F M AT E R I A L P R O P E R T Y & WORKABILITY

Sustainable

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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LIFE CYCLE
Collection of straw

STRAW

Construction

Storage

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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Straw

M AT E R I A L S A F E T Y DATA

Hazard Ingredients/Identity Information FireTect Fire-Safe Flame Retardant for Hay & Straw (Non-Hazardous Saturant) Water based flame retardant solution VOC: 0 Grams per litre pH 6.5-7.0 NON-HAZARDOUS, NON FLAMMABLE Fire and Explosion Hazard Data Special Fire Fighting Procedures: None Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards Health Hazard Data Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic): Contact with skin and eyes can cause local irritation Signs and Symptoms of Exposure: Local Irritation. Medical Conditions Generally aggravated by Exposure: None Emergency and First Aid Procedures: If swallowed, induce vomiting, seek medical attention. In case of eye contact, flush with running water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation persists, seek advice of a physician.

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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ADOBE CONSTRUCTION
ADOBE When building an adobe structure, the ground should be compressed because the weight of bricks is significantly greater than a frame house. The footing is dug and compressed once again Bond beams made of reinforced concrete or heavy wood beams are laid to provide a horizontal bearing plate for the roof beams. To protect the interior and exterior wall, finishes can be applied, such as mud plaster, whitewash.
REINFORCEMENT Bamboo Steel Wood
The citadel of Bam, in Kerman province of IRAN

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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TIMBER Wooden logs are used as pillars to bear the structural load . Technological development (CAD , 3D modeling) in timber industries makes the construction very effective , through the PRE- FABRICATED blocks . All the joints are fixed through screw, nuts and bolts.

TIMBER CONSTRUCTION

TIMBER FRAME WORK

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BAMBOO Bamboos are used for construction purpose is because of its durability and its tensile nature. At first the bamboos are soaked for 2 weeks Skinning is done once the bamboo is dry which makes it to control humidity & it looks uniform during construction. Tying is the traditional way of joining , but still in practice. Nowadays nuts and bolts joins the bamboo, small wooden pieces also used as a joinery material.

BAMBOO CONSTRUCTION

SOAKING

SKINNING

TYING

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STRAW Straw-bale construction is a building method that uses bales of straw (commonly wheat, rice, rye and oats straw) as structural elements, building insulation, or both. This construction method is commonly used in natural building or "brown" construction projects. Straw bale building typically consists of stacking rows of bales on a raised footing or foundation, with a moisture barrier or capillary break between the bales and their supporting platform. Bale walls can be tied together with pins of bamboo, rebar, or wood, or with surface wire meshes, and then stuccoed or plastered, either with a cementbased mix, lime-based formulation, or earth/clay render
STACKING OF STRAW BALE

STRAW CONSTRUCTION

AFTER PLASTERING

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S U STA I N A B L E C A M P U S
DRUK WHITE LOTUS SCHOOL
1. Project Basics: Location: Shey, Ladakh, India Building type: School Stories: 1 story Completion: First phase in 2001, phase 2 in 2004, all phases by 2009 Client: Drukpa Trust Design team: Arup Associates.

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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S U STA I N A B L E C A M P U S

Background context The Druk White Lotus School project initiated in 1997 The project team is diverse, including the British engineers and architects, carpenters from Punjab, and Nepalese laborers, many of whom are women. The school will serve 750 students from nursery through high school.

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S U STA I N A B L E C A M P U S
Design Intent
The Drukpa Trusts intent to develop a model sustainable school was ambitious, not only in terms of hardware but also in soft skills. Adapting to local conditions, the designer developed and used powerful tools that allowed accurate analysis of the ventilated walls, the feasibility of using wool as an insulating layer, and the use of double glazing.

Key Design Strategies


The Druk White Lotus School employs a range of strategies appropriate to its remote high desert climate Passive Solar Heating. The classroom buildings are oriented 30 east of true south with an elongated east-west axis to assure early morning warm up. Trombe walls made of ventilated mud brick and granite cavity walls with double glazing are used to provide evening heating in the dormitories. All the buildings in the residential area are oriented on a true north-south axis to maximize solar gain. Small wood stoves are provided for back-up heating. S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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S U STA I N A B L E C A M P U S
Super insulation. The roofs are constructed of local poplar rafters, willow sheathing topped with mud and rock wool and felt insulation. The weather skin is sand and aluminum sheets. Air locks. The entries to the classroom buildings are all air locks to act as a buffer between the winter cold and the warm interiors.

Day lighting. The classrooms are designed for optimum daylight. In the wider Nursery and Kindergarten Building, the light from the direct solar gain windows is balanced by top lighting from north- and south-facing clerestories and a splayed ceiling. No electric lighting is typically used in the classrooms.
Natural ventilation. All the rooms have well-shaded operable windows that allow natural cross-ventilation that provides a cool, glare-free, high quality teaching environment.

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S U STA I N A B L E C A M P U S

Migration. The courtyards between the classroom buildings are subdivided into smaller spaces appropriate for teaching during mild sunny days. The buildings and trees provide shade and wind protection to these spaces. Water use. Its a desert, so water is precious. Groundwater is extracted from a 105-foot deep well and pumped by PV power to a 16,000-gallon tank located on higher ground than the buildings it serves. A new well is planned for a location above the storage tank in order to eliminate the need for pumping. Materials. An emphasis was placed on using local materials. Soil from the site was used in the roof construction and the mud bricks for the inner walls were hand made in Shey. The granite blocks of the exterior wall are formed and nished from stone found on the site

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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LEED SCORE CARD

PARAMETER
Linkage and location Water efficiency Indoor environmental quality Material and resources Energy and atmosphere Innovation and design Sustainable site

SCORE
(OUT OF 10)

5 8 9 8 9 7 7

TOTAL Certification level SILVER


S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E

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L EG I S L AT I O N
Navigating Sustainability Claims Increased emphasis on sustainability and Green Building has created a significant rise in green claims by companies about their products and manufacturing operations. There are several companies that are certifying sustainability claims such as recycled content, rapidly renewable resource content, low VOC, and other sustainable aspects.

Setting a New Standard The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is in the process of updating the Green Guides to provide more specific requirements on the green claims that companies are making. Once the Green Guides are finalized, the FTC is expected to increase enforcement of the Guides for companies that do not comply with the guides or which are making inaccurate or unsubstantiated green claims.
The Manufacturing Process and Product Claims In response to consumer demand for environmental responsibility, many manufacturers are making recycled content claims for their products. The amount of recycled content in a specific product can affect if, and how many, points are earned for particular credits or practices in the LEED and National Green Building Standards.
S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
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L EG I S L AT I O N

Integrity in ThirdParty Certification Green Building professionals and certifying bodies should require specific information on a manufacturing plant and product family basis for both thirdparty certified or selfcertified claims.

Todays consumer demands honesty and integrity from suppliers .Specificity in thirdparty certification of sustainability claims is essential in establishing credibility and developing consumer confidence

TERI The Energy and Resources Institute, commonly known as TERI, established in 1974, is a research institute based in New Delhi focusing its research activities in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development.

TERI is a leading Indian non government organization (NGO), a global think tank conducting research and analysis in the genres of energy and environment, is a university with a vast focus, which ranges from micro organisms to global climate change and everything in between.

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L EG I S L AT I O N

GRIHA TERI conceived GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment), the national rating system for green buildings in India. It was developed jointly with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy to the Indian Government. It is a green building design evaluation system and is suitable for all kinds of buildings in different climatic zones of the country.

LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) consists of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings, homes and neighbourhood. In LEED 2009 there are 100 possible base points distributed across five major credit categories: Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and Atmosphere, Materials and Resources, Indoor Environmental Quality, plus an additional 6 points for Innovation in Design and an additional 4 points for Regional Priority. Buildings can qualify for four levels of certification: Certified: 4049 points Silver: 5059 points Gold: 6079 points Platinum: 80 points and above
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L EG I S L AT I O N
ECBC The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), was launched by Ministry of Power, Government of India in May 2007, as a first step towards promoting energy efficiency in the building sector.

FSC The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international not for-profit, multi-stakeholder organisation established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the worlds forests.
Its main tools for achieving this are standard setting, certification and labelling of forest products. The organization aims to "provide businesses and consumers with a tool to influence how forests worldwide are managed." GREENSTAR Green Star is a voluntary environmental rating system for buildings in Australia. It was launched in 2003 by the Green Building Council of Australia. The system considers a broad range of practices for reducing the environmental impact of buildings and to showcase innovation in sustainable building practices, while also considering occupant health and productivity and cost savings.

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A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

NEIGHBOORHOOD PROGRAM
Building use: residential Location: behind sadasiva nagar bus stop,kodambakkam,Chennai. Area: 3790sq.ft Certification level: platinum Architects& structural consultants: P.Ravi architects Private Limited & Ms.Vidhi Gupta,Chennai Green consultant: Dr.U V.Niveditha

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

SITE REVIEW

Viswa syamalam was commenced during 2008 and completed in 2009

Indias first platinum rated green home by INDIAN GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL(IGBC)
IGBC encourages eco-friendly sustainable practices for homes

Design process,operations,maintenance optimization, waste and toxic reduction are included as a part of typical overall greed building evaluation
Viswa syamalam has compiled with all the above prerequisites of making a world class green home It is a water positive home with least carbon foot print

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

SITE REVIEW LIGHTING


LIGHTING 100% no electrical lighting is used from sunrise to sun set. Solar energy is used for lighting and water heater Rooms in the ground floor uses sun pipes providing brilliant yet cool natural light It is 100% electrical light energy saving during day time

After sunset entire building is lit only with LED


Viswa syamalam is 3-4 C lesser than neighborhood home Cross ventilation in entire building Ceiling height is 11 feet

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

SITE REVIEW M AT E R I A L S
MATERIALS Peripheral walls built with air gap between bricks providing natural insulation Broken tiles were used for terrace cladding 90% of the materials are locally manufactured and during construction the use of fossil fuels is minimized Packaging wood is reused for gate and furnitures Fly ash based cement and blocks,recycled steel,reclaimed wood and bamboo screens and flooring were done Heat resistance,insulating reflective paint on sun exposed walls is used

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

SITE REVIEW G R E E N M AT E R I A L S
GREEN MATERIALS In the entire building no teak and no imported materials are used Used wood or rapidly renewable plant materials,recycled metal and UPVC windows are used Kitchen and garden refuse is converted into manure and entirely used in the home garden Plants and creepers are grown for preventing dust and noise pollution and for generating oxygen Root zone filtration plants for converting refuse water into reusable water

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

SITE REVIEW WAT E R E F F I C I E N C Y


WATER The only source of water is rainwater No municipal water connection No complicated water treatment system needed It is a water positive home Separate plumbing for fresh, grey treated and black water Recycled water is used for horticulture and flushing Sewage treatment with baffles tank as per auroville design

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

IGBC SCORE CARD

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H

THANK YOU!

S U S TA I N A B L E A R C H I T E C T U R E
A K H YA R - K R I S H N A - M A D H A N - M A RS H A L L - S E E T H A R A M A N - S O W M I YA - S R E E L A K S H M I - V I N OT H