Community Ecology: Structure, Species Interactions, Succession, and Sustainability G.

Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13th Edition Chapter 8
Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

Key Concepts
 Community structure  Roles of species  Species interactions  Changes in ecosystems  Stability of ecosystems

Community Structure: Appearance and Species Diversity
Fig. 8-2 p. 166

 Stratification  Species diversity  Species richness  Niche structure  Edge effects

Biodiversity
 Latitude  Depth  Pollution  Theory of island biogeography

Biodiversity
 Latitude
 Depth  Pollution
Ants Birds

Fig. 8-3 p. 167

 Theory of island biogeography

Biodiversity
 Latitude

 Depth
 Pollution  Theory of island biogeography

Biodiversity - Depth
25 Snails 25 Species diversity 20 20

© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

Tube worms

15

15

10

10

5 Coast 0 0 2,000 Deep Sea 4,000 6,000

5 Coast 0 0 2,000 4,000 Deep Sea 6,000

Depth (meters)

Depth (meters)

Biodiversity
 Latitude  Depth

 Pollution
 Theory of island biogeography

Biodiversity - Pollution
Number of diatom species

Unpolluted stream

Polluted stream

Number of individuals per diatom species

Biodiversity
 Latitude  Depth  Pollution

 Theory of island biogeography

High

© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

Rate of immigration or extinction

Low Equilibrium number Number of species on island

The number of species on an island is determined by the interplay between the immigration rate and extinction rate.

(a) Immigration and extinction rates

High

© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

Rate of immigration or extinction

Small island low immigration and high extinction low diversity Large island high immigration and low extinction high diversity

Low Small island Large island Number of species on island

(b) Effect of island size

High

© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

Rate of immigration or extinction

When an island is far away “small” low diversity When an island is close “large” high diversity

Low Far island Number of species on island Near island

(c) Effect of distance from mainland

100 Number of species (percentage of sample studied)

Distance from mainland
NEW GUINEA

© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

50

25

12.5

6.25 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000

Distance from New Guinea (kilometers)

Island Size
Number of amphibian and reptile species SABA MONTSERRAT CUBA 100 Puerto Rico Jamaica Hispaniola Cuba

© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

10 Montserrat Saba Redonda

1

10

100

1,000

10,000

100,000

Area (square miles)

General Types of Species
 Native  Non-native (exotic or alien)  Indicator  Keystone

General Types of Interactions
 Competition  Predation  Symbiosis (living together)

Species Interactions: Competition  Intraspecific competition  Interspecific competition  Interference competition  Exploitation competition  Competitive exclusion principle  Resource partitioning

High Paramecium aurelia Relative population density

No Competition

Paramecium caudatum

Low 0 2 4 6 8 Days 10 12 14 16 18

Each species grown alone

Competitive Exclusion
High Relative population density Paramecium aurelia

Paramecium caudatum Low 0 2 4 6 8 Days 10 12 14 16 18

Both species grown together

Resource Partitioning

Fig. 8-9 p. 175; Refer to Fig. 7-13 p. 152 & Fig. 8-10 p. 175

Warblers

Species Interactions: Predation  Predator  Prey  Prey acquisition  Predator Avoidance
Refer to Fig. 8-11 p. 177

Symbiotic Species Interactions: Parasitism  Parasite  Host  Endoparasites  Ectoparasites

Symbiotic Species Interactions: Mutualism  Reproductive mutualism: pollination  Nutritional mutualism  Nutritional/protection mutualism

Fig. 8-12 p. 179

Symbiotic Species Interactions: Commensalism
 Indirect: i.e., small plants growing in shade of larger plants  Direct: i.e., epiphytes, remoras
Fig. 8-13 p. 180

Ecological Succession: Communities in Transition  Primary succession  Secondary succession  Pioneer species  Successional species

Primary Succession
Fig. 8-14 p. 180

Secondary Succession
Fig. 8-15 p. 181

Succession and Wildlife

Fig. 8-16 p. 182

The Rate of Succession
 Facilitation  Inhibition  Tolerance
Refer to Table 8-1 p. 182

Ecological Stability and Sustainability

 Disturbance  Climax community  Inertia  Constancy  Resilience  Precautionary principle
Refer to Table 8-2 p. 193

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