World War II

A collaboration between Mr. Irwin and his Honors U.S. History students 2008/09

World War II

The Road to War

World War II
Note: This PowerPoint Presentation has not yet been finalized. At this stage of completion it is mostly text only. In it’s current form, the second half of the presentation contains a number of unedited/unrefined slides (…but soon to be completed). Even though this presentation is not yet complete, you are still welcome to view it.

World War II – After effects of Versailles
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In less than two decades after the end of World War I, the continent of Europe was embroiled in another major conflict. World War I was felt by many to have been “the war to end all wars.” So…What caused another major war to break out?

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World War II – After-effects of Versailles
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The treaty of Versailles did not create a just and secure peace. Germany had been blamed for being the primary aggressor of World War I. The negative consequences imposed upon Germany at Versailles, were too much for the new democratic Weimar Republic to overcome.

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World War II – The Rise of European Dictators
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When Germany’s new democracy failed to bring about prosperity, the conditions were right for a dictator to rise to power. Based on ideas of strong nationalism and racial superiority, Adolf Hitler, of the Nazi Party, rises to power and becomes Chancellor of Germany in 1933. With the help of thousands of “brown shirt” “storm troopers,” Hitler declares himself Der Fuhrer, and becomes the absolute dictator of Germany in 1934.

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World War II – Hitler in Power
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In 1933, Hitler took Germany out of the League of Nations. He initiated a massive rearmament program, which was a violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler strengthened Germany’s military forces and expanded its borders. In 1936, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, even though it had been “demilitarized” by the Treaty of Versailles.

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World War II – Hitler’s Initial Invasions
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In 1939, Hitler invaded Austria and annexed it to his Third Reich. Hitler also demanded that Sudentland (western Czechoslovakia) be joined to the Third Reich. At first, the weak League of Nations stood by helplessly, as did the Allied nations of World War I.

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World War II – Hitler’s Initial Invasions
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Initially, the powers of Europe did not want to get pulled into another large-scale war. France and Great Britain who were bound by treaties to protect Czechoslovakia, did not act. These European powers chose appeasment as the way to deal with Hitler and to avoid another large scale conflict.

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World War II - Appeasement
Appeasement - giving in to a competitor’s demands in order to keep the peace.

When Hitler made demands, other nations gave in…they attempted to appease Hitler.

Appeasement was used to avoid conflict.

World War II – Hitler’s Initial Invasions

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Once Hitler realized that the major powers of Europe did not want to challenge him, he became even more aggressive. In 1939, Hitler seized the rest of Czechoslovakia, took part of Lithuania, and invaded Poland.

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World War II – Hitler’s in Power
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Hitler removed “undesirable” people from Germany (Non- Aryan race). Committed Genocide of Jews, Blacks, Gays, and other minorities. Ultimately, He attempted to dominate the European continent.

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World War II – Hitler’s Attack on Britain

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Once Hitler had control of France, he attacked Great Britain. He had a 2-part strategy for taking Britain:

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World War II – Hitler’s Attack on Britain
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First… weaken England by bombing strategic resources such as:
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ports, airfields, radar installations, aircraft factories, oil storage tanks
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… and later on, the city of London, itself.

World War II – Hitler’s Attack on Britain

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Second… Would be to launch a ground invasion of Great Britain.

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World War II – Hitler’s Attack on Britain

The term, blitzkreig is used to describe Germany’s air attacks of England. Ultimately, the Germans launched 20,000 air raids over Great Britain. The British had a sophisticated air defense system (for the times), as the result, British fighter pilots were able to shoot down many German bombers.

World War II – Hitler’s Attack on Britain

In February 1940, British scientists cracked the German communication code.

This breakthrough gave the Allies information about Hitler’s battle plans. The German ground invasion never came because Germany was never able to establish air superiority over Great Britain.

World War II - The U.S. Reacts
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The U.S. attempts to stay out of the war and to remain neutral with the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, & 1937.
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1935: Congress bans the U.S. from providing weapons to nations at war. 1936: Congress bans loans to nations at war. 1937: The U.S. begins trading with the nations at war in non-military goods, on a cash and carry basis.

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World War II - U.S. Deficit Spending
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Deficit Spending - Paying out more money from the annual federal budget than the government receives in revenues. The U.S. employed deficit spending as a strategy to turn the economy around during the Great Depression. The process of deficit spending continued well into WWII.

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World War II - U.S. Deficit Spending

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It was the massive war production that finally brought the U.S. out of the Great Depression.

World War II – U.S. Liberty Ships
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Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser introduced mass production techniques into ship building. His techniques cut the time required to build supply ships from 200 days to 40 days. These ships were nicknamed “Liberty Ships” because the supplies that they would carry would help to “liberate” Europe from the Germans.

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World War II – Battle of the Bulge
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After the battle, most Nazi leaders recognized that the war was lost. Hitler started drafting people as young as 15. Knocked the Germans back and restarted the allied drive into Germany.

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World War II – VE Day
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VE Day stands for victory in Europe Day. Fighting in Europe came to an end on May 8th, 1945 when Germany officially surrendered Although fighting had stopped in Europe, the war wouldn’t be over until Japan was defeated.

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World War II – U.S. Internment Camps

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After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, U.S. government officials became concerned that Japanese living on the West Coast might try to help a Japanese invasion of the U.S. mainland to take place. President Roosevelt issued an executive order that required persons of Japanese ancestry, and living on the West Coast, be relocated to internment camps.

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World War II – U.S. Internment Camps
The President’s executive order isolated JapaneseAmericans from other American citizens. Some felt the relocation and internment of JapaneseAmericans during WWII was Unconstitutional. The President claimed that during times of war, the government has the right to temporarily restrict the rights & freedoms of its citizens.

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World War II – U.S. Internment Camps

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About 110,000 citizens and non-citizens were moved and “relocated” under the executive order.

World War II – Dwight D. Eisenhower
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U.S. General, Dwight D. Eisenhower was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe. He oversaw the Invasion of Normandy and the D-Day landings in France. He forged agreements among Allied military commanders.

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World War II – Dwight D. Eisenhower

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The war helped Eisenhower establish a worldclass reputation. This helped him after the war, when he ran for and won the U.S. presidency in 1952.

World War II
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*NOTE: This is the end of the edited portion of this presentation.

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The subsequent slides have not yet been put into their final form.
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Feel free to read on anyway.

World War II
the Allies confront Japanese aggression  Military planners wanted to bypass the Philippine islands and head straight for Japan.  MacArthur and other generals opposed the idea and felt we are obligated to free the Filipino people.  Roosevelt reversed this decision and ended up freeing the Filipino people.  After the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa the US had more casualties than expected, making a ground attack on Japan not possible.

World War II
The War Finally Ends  On August 6,1945, the “Enola Gay,” an American plane, dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima  80,000 died and many were injured by fire, radiation sickness, and the force of the explosion  90% of Hiroshima’s buildings were damaged or destroyed  3 days later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki  August 14, Japan accepted American terms for surrender  The formal surrender agreement was signed on September 2, 1945, aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

World War II

The End

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