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Article IV

It is a membership in a political community which is personal and more or less permanent in character.

Those born before January 17. and (3 years. time to elect at the time of reaching age of majority) D. B. 1973. Those who are naturalized in the accordance with law. The following are citizens of the Philippines: A. who elect Philippine Citizenship upon reaching the age of majority. Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution. of Filipino mothers. . C.

Citizen ◦ An individual having the title of citizenship  Enjoys full civil and political privileges  Citizenship ◦ Connotes membership in a political society ◦ Implies a duty of allegiance on the part of the member ◦ Protection on the part of the State  .

 Voluntary ◦ By naturalization ◦ Application . Involuntary ◦ By birth ◦ Because of blood relationship or place of birth ◦ No action to perfect citizenship.

 Jus Sanguinis ◦ Blood relationship  Follows the citizenship of the parents or one of them  Adopted in the Philippines  Jus Soli ◦ Place of birth  Becomes a citizen of the state where he is born  Regardless of the citizenship of the parents .

The mother gave birth while they are having a tour at the United States? What is the citizenship of the child? ◦ Filipino – Jus Sanguinis ◦ American – Jus Soli ◦ Dual Citizenship  . Mother is a Philippine citizen. while the father is an American citizen.

 Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines ◦ Jus Sanguinis ◦ As long as one of the parents is a Filipino citizen  Regardless where the child was born .

who elect Philippine Citizenship upon reaching the age of majority ◦ Citizens through election under the 1935 Constitution . of Filipino mothers. 1973. Those born before January 17.

Filipino (Not Married). child obtains alien citizenship . Father – Alien ◦ Son is Alien  If one of the parents is alien. Mother – Filipino (Married) Father – Alien ◦ Son is Alien ◦ Remains alien throughout his age of minority ◦ Unless elects Philippine citizenship  Mother .

 Those who are naturalized in the accordance with law ◦ Those who are not Filipino at birth ◦ Acquired citizenship by naturalization  Naturalization ◦ Act of formally adopting a foreigner into the political body of the state and clothing him with the rights and privileges of citizenship ◦ Renunciation of previous nationality .

 Judgement of the Court ◦ Application for naturalization (RTC) ◦ Must have all qualifications and none of the disqualifications  Revised Naturalization Act Act of Congress ◦ Law making body passes a law conferring citizenship to a foreigner  .

Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3).” . Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.“Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship.

1. thus he decided to reacquire his Philippine citizenship. he decided to retire in the Philippines. Can he be considered a natural-born Philippine citizen? . ◦ Filipinos at birth ◦ No need to perform any act to acquire citizenship Natural-born Citizens Example Johnny Dela Cruz migrated to the US when he was 21 and elected to renounce his Philippine citizenship and embrace American citizenship. on his retirement. However.

1973 3.2. Citizen through election (1935 Constitution) ◦ Born before Jan.17. 1973. upon reaching age of majority elected Philippine citizenship even after the ratification of the 1973 constitution 4. Naturalized Citizen . Citizens at the time of adoption of the new Constitution ◦ Philippine citizen under the 1973 constitution or on January 17.

” .“Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.

Renunciation of citizenship Taking an oath of allegiance to a foreign country Rendering services to the Armed Forces of a foreign country  Involuntary ◦ Cancellation of certificate of naturalization  punishment ◦ Deserter in the Armed Forces of the Philippines in time of war . Voluntary ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Naturalization in a foreign country Expatriation .

   Naturalization Act of Congress Repatriation ◦ Marrying members of Armed Forces of a foreign country ◦ Termination of Marital Status  Oath of Allegiance to the Philippines  Registering in the Civil Registry .

Art. IV. 4.R : The Filipino retains Philippines citizenship.  G. to have renounced it. XPN: If by their act or omission they are deemed under the law. 1987 Constitution)  . ( Sec.

” .“Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law.

you were called on by the Philippine government to render service  . Continued allegiance of naturalized nationals to their mother country Dual citizenship is different from Dual Allegiance ◦ Dual citizenship is accepted ◦ Dual allegiance is illegal  Inimical to national interest  Can’t serve two masters at the same time  In times of war.